Zida zosonkhanitsira zitsanzo zakunyumba za COVID-19 zingaphatikizepo malangizo, swab ya m'mphuno yophatikizika, chubu cha 3 mL cha saline solution, thumba lachilengedwe, ndi envulopu yopindidwa.

Mmene Kudzitolera Kumathandizira Kuti Zaumoyo Zikhale Zosavuta





Zida zosonkhanitsira zitsanzo zakunyumba za COVID-19 zingaphatikizepo malangizo, swab ya m’mphuno yophatikizika, chubu cha 3 mL cha saline solution, thumba lachilengedwe, ndi envulopu yopindidwa.

Chitsime: visionart.av / Pexels



Pambuyo pa kufalikira kwa coronavirus yatsopano, COVID-19, kuyitanidwa kuti ayesedwe mwamphamvu kwalimbikitsa njira zatsopano. Izi zikuphatikiza njira zotsatirira milandu ya COVID-19, kuyezetsa kunyumba komwe kulipo mwachangu komanso njira zotumizira zitsanzo zodzitolera tokha kuma laboratories oyesa.

Patadutsa zaka ziwiri mliri wa COVID-19 utayamba, ofufuza ndi ozindikira matenda akuwunika mafunso otsatirawa kuti apititse patsogolo thanzi la anthu: Kodi tingakulitse bwanji zosonkhanitsira m’malo omwe siachipatala kuti ayesedwe pambuyo pake m’ma laboratories? Kodi mwayi wopeza chithandizo chamankhwala ungatukuke bwanji podziyeza komanso kudzitolera zitsanzo?

COVID-19 imayambitsa njira zosonkhanitsira zitsanzo kunyumba

Kudzisonkhanitsa tokha zitsanzo zoyezetsa COVID-19 kumathandizira kuchepetsa kukhudzana ndi SARS-CoV-2 ndikuloleza kuyezetsa pafupipafupi pamene nthawi yoikidwiratu ndi mphamvu m’malo azachipatala zili zochepa. Kutolera zitsanzo kunyumba – pankhaniyi, njira yosonkhanitsira chitsanzo cha m’mphuno kapena malovu ndikutumiza zitsanzo ku labotale yachipatala kuti ipitilize kuyezetsa polymerase chain reaction (PCR) – ndikukula kwa chisamaliro, Dr. Susan Harrington, director. za Microbiology ku Cleveland Clinic.Chisamaliro chaumoyo chikhoza kusintha kwambiri momwe timayezera matenda oyambitsidwa ndi ma virus.

“Zopereka zakunyumba zakhala zikugwiritsidwa ntchito pakufalikira kwa ma coronavirus, mwina chifukwa choti tinalibe nthawi yokwanira yowerengera, kapena chifukwa tinalibe antchito okwanira,” adatero Harrington. “Kutha kutengera malovu kapena swab ya m’mphuno kumagwirizananso ndi telemedicine. Tikuwona zopempha zambiri kuchokera kwa madokotala athu omwe ali ndi chidwi ndi njira za telemedicine. Zingathandize kufikira odwala omwe sakhala pafupi ndi malo oyezera komanso odwala omwe sangathe kuchoka panyumba “.

Mu June 2020, kafukufuku wa University of Washington ndi UnitedHealth Group adawonetsa kuti kudziphatikiza kwa zitsanzo za mayeso a COVID-19 PCR kunatulutsa zotsatira zofanana ndi za mayeso a PCR pomwe zitsanzo zidasonkhanitsidwa ndi akatswiri azachipatala m’malo azachipatala. . . Olembawo amawonanso momwe kudziyesa kumathandizira kuti malo oyeserera achepetse kuchuluka kwa zida zodzitetezera (PPE) zomwe zimafunikira kwa ogwira ntchito ndikulola “kukhala oleza mtima kwambiri.” Kafukufuku wina, wofalitsidwa mu Seputembara 2020, adawunikira kufunitsitsa kwa anthu kuti apereke zitsanzo zomwe adzisonkhanitsa okha kuti akayezetse COVID-19. Mwa opitilira 1,400 omwe atenga nawo mbali, pafupifupi 90% adati angalole kusonkhanitsa malovu kapena zoseweretsa zapakhosi kunyumba kuti akayesedwenso, pomwe otenga nawo mbali ocheperako akuwonetsa kufunitsitsa kupereka zitsanzo zamtunduwu pazachipatala. Ofufuzawo adafunsanso za zomwe akumana nazo pakudzisonkhanitsa okha zitsanzo zoyezetsa COVID-19. Kafukufuku wa Marichi 2022 adafufuza anthu opitilira 1,000 ku Atlanta ndipo adapeza kuti ambiri omwe adatenga nawo gawo adatchulapo zokumana nazo zabwino pomwe adadzisonkhanitsa okha, ndipo oposa 79% adatchulapo “zosavuta komanso zosavuta.”




Mayi amagwiritsa ntchito swab ya m'mphuno kuti atole zitsanzo zoyezetsa COVID-19.
Mayi amagwiritsa ntchito swab ya m’mphuno kuti atole zitsanzo zoyezetsa COVID-19.

Chitsime: AzmanL / iStock



Ku Cleveland Clinic, njira zodzisonkhanitsa zakhala zothandiza makamaka poyesa odwala a COVID-19 omwe atha kulowa m’zipatala kuti achite opaleshoni, kapena kwa odwala omwe angafunike kugona pamalopo. Kuphatikiza apo, Harrington adanenanso kuti kudzipangira nokha kumatha kuchepetsa chiwopsezo cha odwala omwe ali ndi chitetezo chamthupi ndipo amatha kukumana ndi zowonekera polowa m’malo azachipatala. Panthawi ya COVID-19, pomwe antchito azachipatala masauzande ambiri adakhala kunyumba atayamba kukhala ndi zizindikiro za coronavirus yatsopano, kudzisonkhanitsa kunathandiziranso kuchepetsa kuwonekera kwachipatala.

Self-collecting sexually transmitted infection (STI).

Pali chidwi chochuluka kuposa kale pakuyezetsa kunyumba kwa mitundu ina ya matenda, kuphatikiza matenda opatsirana pogonana. COVID-19 isanachitike, chlamydia (yomwe imayambitsidwa ndi mabakiteriya Chlamydia trachomatis) ndi matenda opatsirana omwe amanenedwa kawirikawiri ku United States (kuyambira 1995 pamene adapatsidwa chizindikiritso cha ‘matenda odziwika’). Chlamydia, yomwe ili yachiwiri pambuyo pa COVID-19, imatsatiridwa ndi chinzonono (chomwe chimayamba ndi Neisseria gonorrhoeae) ndi chindoko (chifukwa cha Treponema pallidum), Molunjika. Dr. Barbara van der Poel, pulezidenti wa International Society for Sexually Transmitted Diseases anatero Dr. Barbara van der Poel: Wofufuza ndi Pulofesa wa Zamankhwala ndi Zaumoyo wa Anthu ku Yunivesite ya Alabama ku Birmingham.

Kwa odwala omwe ali ndi Medicaid, yomwe imaperekedwa kwa akazi pobadwa komanso osapitirira zaka 25, mwachitsanzo, chiwerengero cha anthu omwe amayesedwa chaka chilichonse ku matenda opatsirana pogonana sichidutsa 60%. Kwa anthu omwe ali m’gulu lomwelo komanso omwe ali ndi inshuwaransi yachinsinsi, kuchuluka kwake kuli pafupi ndi 50%. van der Poel anati: Kuyesa kunyumba ndi njira yolimbikitsira kuti ithandizire kuchulukitsa pafupipafupi kuyezetsa kwapachaka kwa matenda opatsirana pogonana. Poganizira za mtundu wa mayeso a STD omwe ali ovuta, komanso kusalidwa kozungulira mtundu uwu wa mayeso azachipatala, van der Poel adati kudzisonkhanitsa kungathandize kuti anthu athe kuyang’anira chisamaliro chaumoyo m’njira yosavuta komanso yofikirika kwa iwo.

Kupanga njira yodziwunika

Ku Cleveland Clinic, zida zodzitolera zokha zimasonkhanitsidwa ndi wogulitsa wina, kenako ndikugawidwa m’malo osungiramo zinthu zakomweko. Zida za COVID-19 nthawi zambiri zimakhala ndi malangizo, cholumikizira m’mphuno, chubu cha 3ml cha saline solution, thumba la biohazard, ndi envelopu yopindika. Kudzisonkhanitsa kokha kumalizidwa, zida zitha kuperekedwa m’mabokosi osonkhanitsira, omwe achipatala amakhala nawo kunja kwa ma pharmacies ndi malo osamalira odwala. Mabokosiwa amayeretsedwa ndi otengera katundu kamodzi patsiku, ndipo Laboratory ya Health System’s Molecular Testing Laboratory imayesa mkati mwa maola 24 mutalandira chitsanzocho. Polankhula ku ASM Microbe mu June 2022, Harrington adalimbikitsa kuganizira mafunso otsatirawa popanga zida zodzipangira tokha zamitundu yonse, osati zoyeserera za COVID-19 zokha:

  • Kodi zida zidzapangidwa ndi kusonkhanitsidwa bwanji?

  • Kodi zosonkhanitsazo zidzasungidwa bwanji (mwachitsanzo, pali kutentha kwina komwe zitsanzo ziyenera kusungidwa)?

  • Kodi zidazi zingapezeke bwanji (mwachitsanzo, zida zidzaperekedwa kwa ogula, kapena zidazi ziperekedwa pokhapokha ngati adokotala alamula)?

  • Kodi zitsanzo zingatoledwe bwanji ndi munthu kunyumba?

  • Kodi zitsanzozo zidzabwezedwa bwanji ku labotale yachipatala (mwachitsanzo, kudzera pa makalata, kudzera pa malo obweretsera)?

Harrington adatsindika kufunikira kophatikiza mayendedwe osavuta kutsatira pazida zilizonse zodzipangira. Mwachitsanzo, odwala a Cleveland Clinic amatha kupeza zambiri kudzera pa webusayiti ya zaumoyo, makanema ophunzirira, ndi ma FAQ, komanso malangizo olembedwa omwe amaphatikizidwa mwachindunji mu zida.

Zikafika pa zida zoyesera kunyumba za matenda opatsirana pogonana, momwe zitsanzo zimasonkhanitsira ndizofunikira. Van der Pol amalimbikitsa kusonkhanitsa zitsanzo kudzera pa swabs osati mkodzo. Malinga ndi kafukufuku wa 2017 wa ma laboratories azaumoyo wa anthu, pomwe ma swabs a nyini amakhala othandiza kwambiri pakuzindikira matenda, machitidwe ambiri oyesera amafuna zitsanzo za mkodzo. M’maofesi azachipatala, nsomba zoyera zomwe zimasiyidwa pakati pa mkodzo nthawi zambiri zimalimbikitsidwa kwa anthu omwe sakumana ndi akazi pobadwa, chifukwa zimalepheretsa mabakiteriya ozungulira mkodzo kuti asayipitse chitsanzocho. Komabe, van der Poel anafotokoza kuti, “Nsomba zoyera zomwe zimasiyidwa pakati pa urethra zimatha kuphonya mpaka 20% ya kutupa. Izi ndizovulaza kwenikweni.” Zitsanzo za mkodzo zomwe zimatengedwa kwa nthawi yoyamba kwa anthu omwe amaperekedwa kwa amuna pobadwa komanso zitsanzo za swab kwa anthu omwe amaperekedwa kwa akazi pobadwa zimakhala zosavuta kutulutsa zotsatira zolondola.

Chifukwa chake, pakutolera zitsanzo zapanyumba, kuyesa kwa swab kumakhala komveka, ponseponse pakuchita bwino komanso kuchita bwino. “Mukaganizira za kusonkhanitsa kunyumba, anthu amajambula zitsanzozo chifukwa ndi zouma zomwe amatha kutumiza, ndipo zimakhala zosavuta kuzipeza,” adatero. Pogogomezera kufunikira koyang’ana deta kuti apange zitsanzo zoyesera zozikidwa pa umboni, van der Poel adati zitsanzo za swab ndi zoyenera kwa anthu amitundu yonse omwe amatolera zitsanzo kunyumba.

Maphunziro a COVID-19




Zitsanzo zotengedwa kunyumba zimatumizidwa ku labotale kuti zikayezedwe.

Gwero: Polina Tankilevitch / Pexels



Pakufunika zotsatira zoyeserera mwachangu munthawi yonseyi ya COVID-19, ziyembekezo za odwala pazamankhwala zasintha. Chifukwa cha mliriwu, pali zida zambiri zopangira zida zodzitolera komanso kuyesa kunyumba za matenda ena kupatula COVID-19. “Uwu ndiye siliva womwe tili nawo kuchokera ku mliri wa COVID-19,” adatero Van der Poel. “Anthu aphunzira momwe angayezetsere m’malo ogula, tili ndi matekinoloje ndipo anthu adayika kale ndalama zokwanira kuti ntchito yopereka malipoti kumadera akudera lazaumoyo agwire ntchito. Ndiye pali njira zomwe titha kuzikwaniritsa pano. ” Kupita patsogolo, ofufuza ndi diagnostician adzapitiriza kufufuza mmene bwino kupanga ndi kuyika m’nyumba kudziona kusonkhana ndi zida zoyesera pofuna kuonetsetsa mwachilungamo mwayi kwa onse.

“Tikufuna chitsanzo chatsopano chomwe chili chofanana ndipo chimaganizira kwambiri nkhani zonse zomwe zimalepheretsa anthu kupeza ntchitozi,” adatero van der Poel. “Ma Laboratories akuyenera kudziwa za nkhani zomwe zili pamutuwu, kuphatikiza zitsanzo za momwe angagwiritsire ntchito bwino ntchito zomwe zili zofunika kwambiri. Oyang’anira magulu a kunyumba ndi kuyezetsa kunyumba zatsala pang’ono kutha, ndipo tiyenera kutengapo gawo ndikuphunzira momwe tingagwiritsire ntchito izi.”


Kafukufuku yemwe ali m’nkhaniyi adaperekedwa ku ASM Microbe, msonkhano wapachaka wa American Society for Microbiology, womwe unachitika pa June 9-13, 2022, ku Washington, DC.

Pitirizani kuphunzira za mutu wofunikirawu ndi Semina yatsopano ya ASM Clinical Public Health Seminar: Mwayi Wokulirapo Wodziphatikiza ndi Kudzifufuza mu Clinical Microbiology. Mndandanda wa magawo atatuwa umayang’ana momwe zilili pano pakuyesa kudzisonkhanitsa kwa ma virus opuma komanso matenda opatsirana pogonana. Dziwani zambiri zaposachedwa pa Seputembara 21, 2022 pomwe mumalandira makhredithi atatu opitilira maphunziro.


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