A photo shows an elderly couple sitting on a couch and looking over paperwork and a laptop together.

Ngakhale kuti kukwera kwa mitengo kumakhudza kwambiri okalamba, phindu la madola mabiliyoni ambiri silikugwiritsidwa ntchito

Okalamba mamiliyoni ambiri akuvutika kuti apeze zofunika pamoyo, makamaka m’nthaŵi ino ya kukwera kwa mitengo. Komabe, ambiri samazindikira kuti chithandizo chilipo, ndipo mapologalamu ena otchuka amene amapereka chithandizo chandalama sagwiritsiridwa ntchito mokwanira.

Zitsanzo zina: Pafupifupi akuluakulu 14 miliyoni azaka zapakati pa 60 kapena kuposerapo ali oyenerera kuthandizidwa ndi Federal Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (yomwe imadziwikanso kuti masitampu a chakudya) koma sanalembetse, malinga ndi kuyerekezera kwaposachedwa. Komanso, akuluakulu oposa 3 miliyoni azaka zapakati pa 65 kapena kuposerapo ali oyenerera koma osalembetsa ku mapulogalamu a Medicare, omwe amalipira malipiro a Medicare ndi kugawana ndalama. Ndipo 30% mpaka 45% ya okalamba akhoza kuphonya thandizo kuchokera ku Medicare Part D Low Income Benefit Program, yomwe imaphatikizapo malipiro a pulani, kugawana ndalama komanso kuchepetsa mtengo wa mankhwala osokoneza bongo.

“Madola mabiliyoni makumi ambiri amapindula sagwiritsidwa ntchito chaka chilichonse” chifukwa akuluakulu sadziwa za izo, amapeza zopempha zovuta kwambiri, kapena amatsutsana ndi kufunafuna thandizo, adatero Josh Hodges, mkulu wa makasitomala ku National Council. Kukalamba, gulu lolimbikitsa anthu achikulire aku America omwe amagwira ntchito ku National Center for Communication and Benefits Enrollment.

Mapulogalamu ambiri amayang’ana achikulire omwe amapeza ndalama zochepa komanso omwe ali ndi zinthu zochepa. Koma sizili choncho nthawi zonse: Mapulogalamu omwe amaperekedwa ndi lamulo kwa Anthu Achikulire Achimereka, monga Zakudya Zam’nyumba ndi Thandizo Lalamulo kwa Akuluakulu Amene Akukumana ndi Kutsekedwa kapena Kuthamangitsidwa Panyumba, safuna kuyesa ndalama, ngakhale kuti anthu omwe amapeza ndalama zochepa nthawi zambiri amapatsidwa patsogolo . Ndipo mapulogalamu ena akumaloko, monga makhadi amisonkho a eni nyumba, amapezeka kwa aliyense wazaka 65 kapena kuposerapo.

Ngakhale madola mazana angapo pa chithandizo cha mwezi uliwonse angapangitse kusiyana kwakukulu kwa okalamba omwe amakhala ndi ndalama zochepa zomwe zimapangitsa kuti zikhale zovuta kupeza zofunikira monga chakudya, nyumba, mayendedwe, ndi chithandizo chamankhwala. Koma nthawi zambiri anthu sadziwa momwe angadziwire ubwino wake komanso ngati akuyenerera. Ndipo kaŵirikaŵiri okalamba safuna chithandizo, makamaka ngati sanachite zimenezo m’mbuyomu.

“Muli ndi zopindulitsa izi,” adatero Hodges, ndipo akuluakulu ayenera kuganiza za iwo “monga Medicare, monga Social Security.”

Umu ndi momwe mungayambitsire komanso zambiri zamapulogalamu ena.

Pezani thandizo. M’dera lililonse, mabungwe am’deralo okhudzana ndi ukalamba, mabungwe odzipereka kuthandiza achikulire, amawunika zopindulitsa kapena mutha kutumizidwa ku mabungwe ena omwe amawunika izi. (Kuti mudziwe zambiri zokhudzana ndi ukalamba wanu, gwiritsani ntchito Eldercare Locator, ntchito ya Federal Administration on Aging, kapena imbani 800-677-1116 mkati mwa sabata mkati mwantchito.)

Kuwunika kumazindikiritsa mapulogalamu a federal, boma, ndi am’deralo omwe angathandize kukwaniritsa zosowa zosiyanasiyana-chakudya, nyumba, mayendedwe, chisamaliro chaumoyo, ndalama zothandizira, ndi zinthu zina zofunika. Nthawi zambiri, ogwira ntchito ku bungweli azithandiza okalamba kudzaza mafomu ofunsira ndi kutenga zikalata zofunika.

Kulakwitsa kofala ndikudikirira mpaka pakhale vuto ndipo mulibe chakudya mufiriji kapena kampani yamagetsi yatsala pang’ono kudula mphamvu.

Ndi lingaliro labwino kwambiri kukonzekera, “atero a Sandy Markwood, CEO wa USAging, bungwe ladziko lonse lomwe limayimira mabungwe okalamba. “Bwerani mukhale pansi ndi munthu wina, ndipo ikani zosankha zanu zonse patebulo.”

Achikulire omwe ali omasuka pa intaneti ndipo akufuna kuchita kafukufuku wawoawo angagwiritse ntchito BenefitsCheckUp, ntchito yoyendetsedwa ndi National Council on Aging, pa featurescheckup.org. Amene amakonda kugwiritsa ntchito foni akhoza kuyimba 800-794-6559.

Thandizo pazakudya. Mabungwe ena akusintha ndi ukalamba kuti achulukitse kufunikira kwa chithandizo kuchokera kwa okalamba poyang’ana kwambiri zopindulitsa monga masitampu azakudya, zomwe zikukhala zofunika kwambiri chifukwa kukwera kwa mitengo yazakudya kukwera mpaka pafupifupi 10%.

Kuthekera kothandiza okalamba kukwaniritsa zofunika zimenezi n’kwambiri. M’nkhani zatsopano za malipoti, bungwe la AARP Institute for Public Policy likuyerekeza kuti 71% ya akuluakulu a zaka zapakati pa 60 kapena kuposerapo omwe ali oyenerera pulogalamu ya Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program samalembetsa kuti apindule.

Nthawi zina, achikulire angaganize kuti phindu lake ndi laling’ono kwambiri kuti silingapindule. Koma okalamba omwe amakhala okha adalandira ndalama zokwana madola 104 mu masitampu a chakudya pamwezi mu 2019. Osachepera 3 miliyoni akuluakulu 50 kapena kupitirira pa ndalama zochepa kwambiri adzalandira ndalama zoposa $ 200 pamwezi, malinga ndi kuyerekezera kwa AARP.

Pofuna kuthana ndi kusalidwa kwa anthu achikulire omwe amapeza masitampu a chakudya, AARP idakhazikitsa kampeni yotsatsa ku Atlanta ndi Houston ponena kuti “mitengo yazakudya ikukwera ndipo tonse tikuyesera kukweza ndalama zathu zogulira,” atero Nicole Hickman, wachiwiri kwa purezidenti wa Benefit Access Programs. ku AARP..

Ngati izi zisintha malingaliro a okalamba pa pulogalamuyi ndikuwonjezera olembetsa, bungwe likukonzekera kukulitsa kwakukulu chaka chamawa, adatero.

Thandizo ndi ndalama zothandizira zaumoyo. AARP imagwiranso ntchito limodzi ndi mabungwe ammudzi ku South Carolina, Alabama, ndi Mississippi omwe amathandiza achikulire kuti alembetse mapulogalamu a Medicare ndi zopeza zotsika mtengo za mapulani a mankhwala a Part D. Ikukonzekera kukulitsa pulogalamuyo chaka chamawa mpaka mayiko 22.

Phindu la zopindulitsa zachipatala izi, zomwe zimaperekedwa kwa okalamba omwe amapeza ndalama zochepa, ndizofunika kwambiri. Pang’ono ndi pang’ono, mapulogalamu a Medicare savings adzalipira mtengo wa malipiro a Medicare Part B: $170 pamwezi, kapena $2,040 pachaka, kwa okalamba ambiri. Kwa okalamba omwe amapeza ndalama zochepa, zopindulitsa zimakhala zazikulu, ndipo mtengo wa chithandizo chamankhwala umaperekedwanso.

Ngakhale mukuganiza kuti simukuyenerera, muyenera kulembetsa chifukwa pali malamulo osiyanasiyana m’maboma onse,” atero a Meredith Freed, katswiri wofufuza mfundo za KFF pa Medicare Policy.

Phindu lochepa la mapulani a mankhwala a Part D, omwe amadziwikanso kuti thandizo lowonjezera, ndi $5,100 pachaka, malinga ndi Social Security Administration. Pakadali pano, okalamba ena amalandira zopindulitsa pang’ono, koma izi zisintha mu 2024, pomwe okalamba onse omwe ali ndi ndalama zosakwana 150% ya umphawi wa federal ($ 20,385 pa munthu aliyense mu 2022) adzayenerera kulandira chithandizo chonse.

Popeza mapulogalamu azachipatalawa ndi ovuta, kupeza chithandizo ndi ntchito yanu ndi lingaliro labwino. Fred adapereka lingaliro kuti anthu ayambe kulumikizana ndi pulogalamu ya inshuwaransi ya boma lawo (zambiri zopezeka pano). Zina zomwe zingathandize ndi Medicare Hotline (800-633-4227) ndi Dipatimenti Yokalamba ya boma lanu, yomwe ingakutsogolereni kumabungwe ammudzi omwe amathandizira ndi ntchito. Mndandanda wamadipatimenti aboma ukhoza kupezeka apa.

Mitundu ina yothandizira. Onetsetsani kuti mwayang’ana mapulogalamu othandizira misonkho kwa anthu okalamba m’dera lanu ngati gawo la “kufufuza phindu”.

Akuluakulu omwe amapeza ndalama zochepa amathanso kuthandizidwa ndi mabilu apamwamba amagetsi kudzera mu Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program. Kampani yakumaloko ikhozanso kupereka chithandizo chadzidzidzi kwa okalamba omwe sangathe kulipira ngongole zawo. Ndikoyenera kuyimba foni kuti mudziwe, adalangiza Rebecca Laervelt, yemwe ndi mkulu wopuma pantchito wa Chicago-area Aging and Disability Resource Center. Malo othandizirawa amathandiza anthu omwe akufuna kupeza chithandizo chanthawi yayitali ndipo ndi njira ina yothandizira okalamba. Mutha kupeza imodzi mdera lanu pano.

Kwa omenyera nkhondo, “ino ikhoza kukhala nthawi yabwino kuyang’ana kugwiritsa ntchito mapindu anu a VA,” atero a Diane Slezak, Purezidenti wa AgeOptions, bungwe loyang’anira ukalamba m’chigawo chapakati cha Cook County, Illinois. “Ndakumana ndi anthu ambiri omwe ali oyenerera ku Veterans Benefits koma sakugwiritsa ntchito mwayi.”

Zolepheretsa kupeza chithandizo. Othandizira mapulogalamu ambiri amawona kuti mabungwe omwe amatumikira okalamba akukumana ndi kusowa kwa antchito, zomwe zimasokoneza kuyesetsa kupereka chithandizo. Malipiro ochepa ndi chifukwa chofala. Mwachitsanzo, 41% ya mabungwe amderali omwe ali ndi malipoti okalamba ali ndi mwayi wogwira ntchito mpaka 15%, pomwe ena 18% akuti ali ndi mwayi wofikira 25%, malinga ndi Markwood. Komanso, mabungwe ataya anthu ambiri odzipereka panthawi ya mliri wa COVID-19.

Panthawi imodzimodziyo, kufunikira kwa chithandizo kwawonjezeka, ndipo zosowa za makasitomala zakhala zovuta kwambiri chifukwa cha mliri komanso kukwera kwa inflation.

“Zonsezi zimakulitsidwa ndi mavuto azachuma omwe achikulire amamva,” adatero Markwood.

Ndife okondwa kumva kuchokera kwa owerenga athu za mafunso omwe mungafune kuyankhidwa, mavuto omwe mwakumana nawo pakusamaliridwa kwanu, ndi upangiri womwe mukufunikira pothana ndi chithandizo chamankhwala. Pitani ku khn.org/columnists kuti mupereke zopempha zanu kapena malangizo.

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