Madalaivala Achinyamata: ziwerengero za ngozi ndi imfa

Kupeza laisensi yoyendetsa galimoto ndi mwambo kwa achinyamata ambiri. Koma zoona zake n’zakuti achinyamata oyendetsa galimoto amakumana ndi ngozi zoopsa kwambiri. Kafukufuku wa Center for Disease Control (CDC) apeza kuti ngozi zangozi ndizokwera kwambiri pakati pa madalaivala achichepere azaka zapakati pa 16 ndi 19 kuposa za anthu ena onse. Achinyamata a m’zaka zimenezi ali ndi mwayi woti achite ngozi zoopsa kwambiri kuwirikiza katatu kuposa madalaivala achikulire, malinga ndi mtunda wawo.

Achinyamata oyendetsa galimoto alibe luso loyendetsa, chomwe ndi chimodzi mwa zifukwa za kuchuluka kwa ngozi pakati pa achinyamata oyendetsa galimoto. Komabe, kaŵirikaŵiri ngozi zakupha zingapeŵedwe. Kuti aliyense atetezeke, m’pofunika kuti achinyamata oyendetsa galimoto azikonda kuyendetsa galimoto pamene akuphunzira kuyendetsa galimoto komanso zaka zambiri atalandira laisensi. Mwachitsanzo, kupewa kuyendetsa galimoto usiku komanso kuchepetsa kuchuluka kwa anthu okwera kungathandize kuchepetsa ngozi.

Chifukwa cha kuopsa kwa madalaivala a achinyamata, makampani ambiri a inshuwalansi ya galimoto sangagulitse inshuwalansi yodziimira payekha kwa dalaivala yemwe ali ndi chilolezo chatsopano osakwanitsa zaka 18. Komabe, kuwonjezera dalaivala wachinyamata ku inshuwaransi yanu yagalimoto yomwe ilipo idzakulitsa mtengowo kwambiri. Kwa inshuwaransi yagalimoto yotsika mtengo, kupeza zolemba zingapo kungakuthandizeni kupeza mtengo wotsika kwambiri.

Zowona ndi ziwerengero za ngozi zapagalimoto za achinyamata

Kuti tidziwe zambiri zokhudza ngozi zapamsewu za achinyamata, tinafufuza za madalaivala a achinyamata kuchokera ku malo ena odalirika. Nazi zinthu zodabwitsa za oyendetsa achichepere komanso ngozi zapamsewu:

  • Achinyamata omwe ali ndi ziphaso zatsopano amakhala ndi ziwopsezo zapamwamba kwambiri. M’miyezi ingapo yoyambirira yolandira laisensi, zambiri zikuwonetsa kuti kugundana pa kilomita imodzi ndikukwera pafupifupi nthawi 1.5 kwa oyendetsa azaka 16 monga momwe zilili kwa azaka zapakati pa 18-19. (CDC)
  • Kuyendetsa mododometsa ndi vuto la achinyamata oyendetsa galimoto. Lipoti la 2019 lidapeza kuti mwa ophunzira aku sekondale aku America omwe amayendetsa, pafupifupi 40% adati adatumiza mameseji kapena imelo kamodzi pamwezi kafukufukuyu usanachitike. (CDC)
  • Malingana ndi chiwerengero, madalaivala achikulire amatha kuyendetsa galimoto mopitirira malire ndipo amatsatira kwambiri kumbuyo kwa galimoto yomwe ili patsogolo pawo. (CDC)
  • Mu 2019, pafupifupi 50% ya oyendetsa achinyamata ndi apaulendo azaka zapakati pa 16 ndi 19 omwe adamwalira pa ngozi zagalimoto anali osamanga lamba. (CDC)
  • Achinyamata amathamanga kwambiri kuposa madalaivala akuluakulu. Lipoti la 2019 lidapeza kuti chiwopsezo cha ngozi zomwe zimapha anthu othamanga kwambiri ndi okwera kwambiri kwa oyendetsa achinyamata kuposa azaka zina. (GHSA)
  • Pakati pa madalaivala achichepere azaka zapakati pa 16 ndi 19, oposa 50 peresenti ya ngozi zonse zinachitika mumdima. (GHSA)
  • Pakufufuza kwina kwa madalaivala azaka zapakati pa 16-19, deta idawonetsa kuti madalaivala achichepere anali kuthamanga pafupifupi pafupifupi 80% ya ngozi zapagalimoto imodzi ndipo osagonja ndi galimoto ina kuposa 40% ya ngozi zamakona. (National Security Council)
  • Kumwa ndi kuyendetsa galimoto ndikoletsedwa m’maboma onse 50, ndipo mayiko ambiri ali ndi lamulo loletsa kulekerera madalaivala achichepere omwe amamwa mowa ndikuyendetsa. Mu 2020, madalaivala 790 azaka zapakati pa 15 ndi 20 adapezeka kuti adachita ngozi yowopsa ya mowa, ndipo 24% anali ndi BAC kuposa malire ovomerezeka achikulire (0.08 kapena apamwamba). (National Security Council)
  • Mu 2020, ngozi zambiri zamagalimoto pakati pa achinyamata zidachitika nthawi yachilimwe, makamaka mu June, Julayi ndi Ogasiti. (IIHS)
  • Pafupifupi 50% ya ngozi zonse zamagalimoto zomwe zapha pakati pa achinyamata mu 2020 zidachitika Lachisanu, Loweruka kapena Lamlungu. Ngozi zambiri zidanenedwa pakati pa 9pm mpaka pakati pausiku. (IIHS)

Makhalidwe odziwika omwe amayambitsa kugundana

Achinyamata oyendetsa galimoto amakhala otanganidwa kwambiri ndi ngozi komanso ngozi zakupha chifukwa chosowa luso la pamsewu. Nazi zina mwamakhalidwe oyendetsa galimoto omwe nthawi zambiri amayambitsa ngozi zapamsewu pakati pa oyendetsa achichepere.

Okwera anzawo

Atalandira laisensi yoyendetsa galimoto, achinyamata ambiri amasangalala kuyendetsa anzawo. Komabe, kukhala ndi anthu m’galimoto kukhoza kuonjezera ngozi. Nazi ziwerengero zangozi ndi anzawo apaulendo:

  • Kuopsa kwa ngozi kumawonjezeka pamene dalaivala wachinyamata ali ndi anthu akuluakulu m’galimoto, ndipo palibe munthu wamkulu woyang’anira. (CDC)
  • Deta ikuwonetsa kuti chiwopsezo cha ngozi chimawonjezeka ndi wachinyamata aliyense wokwera mgalimoto. Mwachitsanzo, dalaivala wachinyamata amene ali ndi ana anayi ali pachiopsezo chachikulu cha kugundana kusiyana ndi dalaivala wachinyamata yemwe ali ndi munthu wamkulu. (CDC)
  • Mu 2020, 56% mwa onse omwe anamwalira pakati pa oyendetsa galimoto anali m’galimoto yoyendetsedwa ndi wachinyamata wina. (IIHS)

kuthamanga

Liwiro ndilomwe limayambitsa ngozi zakupha pakati pa madalaivala azaka zonse, koma ziwerengero zikuwonetsa kuti madalaivala achinyamata ali ndi liwiro lalikulu kuposa oyendetsa achikulire. Nazi ziwerengero za liwiro la madalaivala achinyamata:

  • Mu 2020, kuchuluka kwa ngozi zowopsa zomwe zimapha anthu pangozi zakupha zidatsika pomwe zaka zoyendetsa zidakwera. (National Security Council)
  • Kawirikawiri, deta imasonyeza kuti madalaivala achikazi sathamanga kwambiri panthawi ya ngozi kusiyana ndi oyendetsa amuna. Izi ndi zofanana m’magulu onse azaka. (National Security Council)
  • Kafukufuku wa 2019 adapeza kuti opitilira 30% a madalaivala aamuna azaka zapakati pa 15-20, ndipo 17% ya madalaivala achikazi amsinkhu womwewo omwe adachita ngozi zoopsa amathamanga. (CDC)

Kulephera kuyang’ana zoopsa

Popeza achinyamata alibe chidziŵitso chamsewu, kaŵirikaŵiri amalephera kufufuza za ngozi zimene zingayambitse ngozi. Nazi mfundo zina zomwe muyenera kuzidziwa:

  • Mwa ngozi zamagalimoto zomwe zimachitika chifukwa cha kulakwitsa kwa dalaivala, woyendetsa wachinyamata wina adalakwitsa pafupifupi 80% ya nthawiyo. (PubMed)
  • Pangozi zamagalimoto pakati pa achinyamata, 46% idakhudza kusazindikirika bwino, opitilira 40% adakhudza zolakwika pakusankha ndipo 8% adakhudza cholakwika chantchito. (PubMed)
  • Kuwongolera molakwika, kuthamanga komanso kuyendetsa mosokoneza kuphatikiza zidapangitsa ngozi zosachepera theka la ngozi zonse zomwe zidakhudza oyendetsa achinyamata mu 2010. (PubMed)

kudodometsa

Kuyendetsa mododometsa sikumangotanthauza kutumizirana mameseji ndi kuyendetsa galimoto. Zinthu zina, monga kudya, kumwa, ndi kumvetsera nyimbo, zingathandizenso kusokoneza magalimoto. Nazi ziwerengero za ngozi zachinyamata zomwe zimachitika chifukwa choyendetsa galimoto mododometsa:

  • Mwa ngozi zonse zomwe zidapha madalaivala osokonekera mu 2019, ziwonetserozi zikuwonetsa kuti oyendetsa ambiri azaka 15-20 adasokonekera, poyerekeza ndi madalaivala opitilira 21. (CDC)
  • Tikayang’ana ngozi zonse zomwe zidapha oyendetsa omwe adasokonekera mu 2019, pafupifupi 10% ya madalaivala anali oyendetsa achichepere omwe adasokonekera panthawi yomwe ngoziyi idachitika. (CDC)
  • Mu kafukufuku wa 2019 wa ana asukulu yasekondale, omwe adafunsidwa omwe adati amatumizirana mameseji kapena kutumiza maimelo pomwe akuyendetsa amatha kusamanga lamba, kuyendetsa ndi achinyamata omwe amamwa, kumwa ndikudziyendetsa okha. (CDC)

Tsatirani mwatcheru

Madalaivala ambiri ali ndi mlandu wobwerera m’mbuyo, kapena kutsatira galimoto yomwe ili patsogolo pawo pafupi kwambiri. Madalaivala achichepere amakhalanso ndi chitseko chakumbuyo, chomwe chingapangitse ngozi yogundana. Nazi zina zokhuza oyendetsa achinyamata komanso zotsatira za kagawidwe kagawo:

  • Pakati pa kugunda kwa galimoto imodzi ya dalaivala wachinyamata, 36% ya ngozi zakumbuyo za galimoto zidachitika chifukwa chotsatira kwambiri. (National Security Council)
  • Lipoti la 2014 linanena kuti oposa 20 peresenti ya ngozi zambiri zamagalimoto pamene wachinyamata akuyendetsa galimoto amakhudza magalimoto akumbuyo. (Tensman ndi Ciano)

Imfa zokhudzana ndi ngozi za achinyamata pakapita nthawi

M’zaka zaposachedwapa, imfa za ngozi zapamsewu pakati pa achinyamata zatsika. Koma mbiri yakale imasonyeza njira zingapo za imfa za achinyamata chifukwa cha ngozi zapamsewu. Mwachitsanzo, ngozi zambiri za achinyamata zimachitika Loweruka ndi Lamlungu, pakati pa 9pm ndi pakati pausiku. M’matebulo otsatirawa, mutha kudziwa zambiri za kufa kwa achinyamata obwera chifukwa cha ngozi zapamsewu kutengera mitundu yosiyanasiyana, malinga ndi data ya 2020 yochokera ku Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS).

Imfa zangozi zapagalimoto za achinyamata ndizochulukirapo poyerekeza ndi imfa zonse zangozi zapamsewu

okwera magalimoto okwera 2,159 24,019 9%
woyenda pansi 229 6516 4%
woyendetsa njinga yamoto 152 5,579 3%
woyendetsa njinga 71 932 8%
Okwera magalimoto oyenda okha (ATV). 49 339 14%
zina 78 1439 5%

Adolescent Afa Ngozi Yagalimoto Pofika Mwezi, 2020

Januwale 198 7%
February 172 6%
Yendani 166 6%
Epulo 176 6%
mayo 231 8%
June 282 10%
July 276 10%
Ogasiti 285 10%
September 253 9%
October 241 9%
Novembala 246 9%
Dec 212 8%

Imfa za achinyamata pa ngozi zamagalimoto patsiku la sabata, 2020

Lamlungu 499 18%
Lolemba 354 13%
Lachiwiri 326 12%
Lachitatu 344 13%
Lachinayi 342 13%
Lachisanu 390 14%
Loweruka 483 18%

Akufa pangozi zamagalimoto achichepere pofika masana, 2020

Pakati pausiku – 3 AM 419 15%
3 AM – 6 AM 259 10%
6 AM – 9 AM 207 8%
9 am-pm 163 6%
Masana – 3 PM 277 10%
3pm – 6pm 430 16%
6 pm – 9 pm 445 16%
9pm – pakati pausiku 524 19%

Imfa zangozi za achinyamata ndi boma

Kuti timvetse bwino kumene ngozi zoopsa za achinyamata zimachitika, tinagwiritsa ntchito deta ya National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) yokhudza ngozi za achinyamata ku United States. 50, komanso ku Washington, D.C. ndi Puerto Rico.

Alabama 13.9%
Alaska 19.4%
Arizona 10.7%
Arkansas 14.1%
California 10.7%
Colorado 13.6%
Connecticut 15.3%
Delaware 12.9%
Florida 11.9%
Georgia 12.4%
Hawaii 12%
Idaho 12.5%
Illinois 12.2%
Indiana 12.6%
Inde 11%
kansa 12.9%
Kentucky 10%
Louisiana 11.7%
WHO 7.6%
Maryland 9%
Massachusetts 9.3%
Michigan 13.1%
Minnesota 10.2%
Mississippi 12.6%
Missouri 13.1%
Montana 19.6%
Nebraska 18.5%
Nevada 9.5%
New Hampshire 7.9%
New Jersey 10.9%
New Mexico 14.4%
New York 10%
North Carolina 11.5%
North Dakota 11%
Ohio 11.6%
Oklahoma 12%
Oregon 13.5%
Pennsylvania 12.7%
Puerto Rico 8%
Rhode Island 5.3%
South Carolina 10.6%
South Dakota 16.7%
Tennessee 14%
Texas 13.3%
Utah 14.5%
Vermont 8.5%
Virginia 10.3%
Washington 9.4%
Washington DC 13%
West Virginia 9.6%
Wisconsin 14.8%
Wyoming 12.2%

Malamulo apamsewu ndi kupewa

Imfa zambiri zapamsewu za achinyamata zimatha kupewedwa. Achinyamata akamayendetsa galimoto motetezeka, izi zingachepetse ngozi ya galimoto imodzi kapena zingapo. Nawa maupangiri omwe achinyamata oyendetsa galimoto ayenera kuwaganizira kuti asamayende bwino.

  • Valani lamba wapampando nthawi zonse: Nthaŵi ndi nthaŵi, deta imatsimikizira kuti malamba amapulumutsa miyoyo, kaya ndinu dalaivala kapena wokwera. Nthawi zonse muzivala lamba m’galimoto, ziribe kanthu momwe mungayendetsere patali. Kumbukiraninso kuti kusamanga lamba ndikoletsedwa m’maboma onse 50. M’madera ena munganene kuti simumamanga lamba, ngakhale simukuphwanya malamulo ena alionse.
  • Osamwa ndikuyendetsa: Ndizoletsedwa kuti madalaivala achinyamata osakwana zaka 21 aziyendetsa galimoto atamwa mowa, ngakhale mlingo wawo wa BAC uli pansi pa malire. Tsoka ilo, ngozi zambiri zakupha zomwe madalaivala achichepere amakumana nazo zimagwirizanitsidwa ndi mowa. Osamwa kapena kuyendetsa galimoto, kapena kukwera galimoto ndi munthu amene amamwa mowa.
  • Pewani kuyendetsa galimoto usiku: Ziwerengero za ngozi za achinyamata zikuwonetsa kuti ngozi zambiri zamagalimoto zomwe madalaivala achichepere zimachitika usiku, makamaka pakati pa 9pm – pakati pausiku. Nthawi zambiri, ngozi zambiri pakati pa madalaivala amisinkhu yonse zimachitika mumdima. Mwakupeŵa kuyendetsa galimoto usiku, mosakayika mungachepetse ngozi yochita ngozi.
  • Kuchepetsa zosokoneza mugalimoto: Kuyendetsa galimoto mosokonezedwa ndi vuto lalikulu pakati pa madalaivala achichepere. Kutumizirana mameseji, kutumizirana maimelo, kudya, kumvetsera nyimbo, ndi kuyendetsa galimoto ndi anthu ambiri kungayambitse ngozi. Madalaivala achinyamata ayenera kuganizira kwambiri kuchepetsa zododometsa pamene akuyendetsa galimoto ngati n’kotheka kuti achepetse ngozi.
  • Lingalirani kuyendetsa achinyamata ena: Zingakhale zosangalatsa kwa achinyamata kuyendetsa galimoto limodzi ndi anzawo, koma kuyendetsa galimoto yodzaza ndi anthu kungathandize kusokoneza komanso kuonjezera mwayi wa ngozi. Kuti akhale otetezeka, achinyamata ayenera kuyendetsa galimoto ndi bwenzi limodzi panthawi imodzi, pokhapokha ngati pali munthu wamkulu m’galimoto amene angathe kuyang’anira.

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