Kutsatsa kwa data kumakhala ndi tanthauzo lalikulu pakukonza mapulani azaumoyo | Groom Law Group, Chartered

The Data Marketing Partnership, LLP (“Data Marketing”) imapereka ndondomeko ya inshuwaransi yaumoyo kwa anthu omwe amatsitsa pulogalamu yomwe imatsata kugwiritsa ntchito foni. Kampani imawatenga anthuwa ngati “ogwirizana” mu bizinesi yake. Zotsatira zake ndikuti masauzande a anthu osagwirizana atha kutenga nawo gawo pagulu lazaumoyo lazamalonda, lomwe kutsatsa kwa data kumatsimikizira kuti ndi gulu limodzi la ogwira ntchito zaumoyo pansi pa ERISA. Zotsatira zake, kutsatsa kwa data kumanena kuti ERISA imapangitsa kuti mayiko asawalamulire ngati kampani ya inshuwaransi kapena Unduna wa Zamagetsi ndi Madzi.

Kutsatsa kwa data kudatsutsa malingaliro a upangiri ochokera ku dipatimenti ya Ntchito (“DOL”) yomwe imati makonzedwewo sanali dongosolo la ERISA ndipo mayiko anali ndi ufulu wowongolera. Mu 2019, kutsatsa kwa data kudasumira ku Northern District of Texas department of Labor ndipo adapambana – khothi lidaganiza kuti DOL idachita mopondereza popereka lingaliro laupangiri ndikutsimikiza kuti pulogalamu yotsatsa deta inali dongosolo la olemba anzawo ntchito amodzi a ERISA. Khotilo linapereka lamulo loletsa unduna wa zantchito kuti usachite chilichonse chotsutsana.

Dipatimenti Yoona za Ntchito idachita apilo chigamulochi ndipo Fifth Circuit idagamula apilo posachedwa. Tikuwona Mktg data. P’ship, L.P. v. Dipatimenti ya United States ya Lab., No. 20-11179, 2022 WL 3440652 (5 Cir. Aug. 17, 2022). Ngakhale kuti chigamulo cha Chigawo Chachisanu chikuyimira kutayika kwa Dipatimenti ya Ntchito pazochitika zazikulu, Dipatimenti ya Ntchito inapeza chipambano chifukwa chakuti Chigawo Chachisanu chinayang’ananso kutanthauzira koyenera kwa “mwiniwake wogwira ntchito” ndi “abwenzi enieni.” Chifukwa chake, khoti lachigawo lili ndi ntchito yochulukirapo.

Mlanduwu ndi woyenera kuuyang’anitsitsa. Ngati makonzedwe monga kutsatsa kwa data ali mapulani azaumoyo omwe amaperekedwa ndi bwana m’modzi ndi ERISA, makonzedwe ena ofananawo angachuluke. Dongosolo lotsatsa malonda limagwira ntchito ngati kampani ya inshuwaransi yomwe imapereka chithandizo chamsika payekha kwa anthu omwe alibe ubale wabizinesi kapena kutsatsa kwa data (kupatula kutsitsa pulogalamu). Mapulani awa samakhudzidwa ndi njira zambiri zotetezera ogula pansi pa Affordable Care Act – kuperekedwa kotsimikizika, kukonzanso, kuvotera anthu ammudzi, ndi mapindu ofunikira azaumoyo kutchulapo ochepa. Adzamasulidwa ku malamulo a inshuwaransi ya boma, kuphatikiza malamulo a solvency. Momwemo, ndizotheka kuti madongosolo monga omwe amaperekedwa ndi kutsatsa kwa data amatha kusokoneza misika ya inshuwaransi ndikupitilira zomwe msika wa inshuwaransi wa ACA.

Tikukambirana za chigamulo chomwe chili m’munsimu komanso njira zotsatila za mlanduwu pamene ukudutsa m’makhoti.

Chidule cha zigamulo

Chigamulocho chimayamba ndi kusankha kuti lingaliro la uphungu linali lomaliza chifukwa linakumana ndi mbali zonse ziwiri za mayesero omaliza: choyamba, khoti linapeza kuti lingaliro la uphungu linamaliza zisankho ku Dipatimenti ya Ntchito; Ndipo chachiwiri, kuti fatwa yotchulidwa maufulu, zotsatira zake ndi udindo, kapena zotsatira zalamulo. Khothilo lidapeza kuti woyamba adakhutitsidwa kuti lingaliro la upangiri “silingaliridwanso ndi bungwe lowonjezera,” zomwe khothi lidapeza kuti dipatimenti yazantchito “idasiya”.[d]. ” ID. Pa 3 koloko pomaliza kuti lingaliro la upangiri lili ndi ufulu wocheperako, zomwe zidapangitsa kuti zikhale ndi udindo kapena zotsatira zalamulo, khotilo linatchula zifukwa zitatu zomwe linakhazikitsira chigamulo chake: Choyamba, khotilo linapeza kuti “lingaliro la advisory linali ndi kasamalidwe koyenera ndipo adachotsa malingaliro ake” pazachigamulo cha Unduna wa Zantchito. Mtsutso wakuti wodandaula akhoza kudalira fatwa pokhapokha ngati ikukwaniritsa zofunikira zina zomwe sizikukwaniritsidwa. Chachiwiri, Khotilo linapeza kuti chigamulocho chinali chokakamiza chifukwa lamulo la alangizi lomwe lilipo limati “kulephera kupeza lingaliro lauphungu” kungayambitse “zovuta zachilendo”. ID. Mu 4. Potsirizira pake, Khotilo linapeza kuti malingaliro a uphungu amasiyana ndi uthenga wofalitsa nkhani komanso kuti chisankho chogwiritsa ntchito malingaliro a uphungu m’malo mwa nkhani zofalitsa zatulutsa zotsatira. ID. (“Chotsatira chake, oyang’anira anali ndi mwayi wopereka ntchito yomaliza ya bungwe (lingaliro lauphungu) m’malo mwa bungwe losamaliza (chidziwitso)”). Gawo ili lachigamulo lokha ndilofunika kwambiri-kukhazikitsa zovuta zamtsogolo ku zolemba za DOL pamene DOL ifika pamapeto osiyana ndi chipani chopempha chitsogozo.

Chigamulo cha khothi loti chigamulo cha Unduna wa Zantchito chinali chokhazikika komanso chosakhazikika chikutsamira pa mfundo ziwiri. Choyamba, dipatimentiyo idalephera kuthana ndi kugwirizanitsa malingaliro awiri am’mbuyomu okhudzana ndi alangizi. Khoti linapeza kuti DOL

Kulephera si “kupanga chisankho chanzeru”. Lingaliro lomwe likufunsidwa limatenga tanthauzo la “wolemba ntchito” lomwe liri losiyana kwambiri ndi matanthauzo a 1999 ndi 2006. Choncho lingaliroli liri ndi “mikangano yosayenera” – chizindikiro cha “kusintha kosasintha ndi kosasinthika kwa machitidwe a bungwe.”

ID. pa *6 (zolemba zamkati sizinasiyidwe). Chachiwiri, idalephera kuthana ndi lamulo lomwe linaperekedwa lomwe limaphatikizapo tanthauzo la mawu oti “mwini wogwira ntchito”. ID. pa * 7. Komanso, khotilo linanena kuti zotsutsana ndi Unduna wa Zantchito pamilandu iliyonse sizinaphatikizidwe mu fatwa, zomwe zidapangitsa kuti pambuyo pake zisanduke lamulolo, lomwe khoti silinawerengepo. ID.

Kenako, khotilo linapendanso zimene khoti lachigawo linaona ponena za mawu oti “wantchito” ndi “wothandizana naye wokhulupilika” pa mlandu uliwonse umene khoti lachigawo linachita kufufuza kosakwanira. Pankhani ya funso la olemba ntchito, Khoti linapeza kuti,

[The district court] Akuwoneka kuti akumvetsa Inde Kunena kuti ERISA nthawi zonse imapereka chitsogozo chapadera pamafunso onse olemba anzawo ntchito. Komabe, m’malingaliro athu, Inde Anangonena kuti panali chitsogozo chokwanira pafunso lomwe Khothi likufuna – ndiye kuti, ngati olemba anzawo ntchito ali oyenerera kutenga nawo mbali. Komabe, izi sizikutanthauza kuti malangizo omwewo ndi oyenerera, osanenapo zachindunji mokwanira, kuti athetse mafunso onse abwana. M’malo mwake, funso loti atsekedwe asanazengedwe mlandu ndilakuti onse awiri Inde Zinthu, kuphatikizapo zofunikira zosiyanasiyana za ERISA ndi International Rescue Committee, zimagwirizanitsa kuti olemba ntchito osankhidwa akhale oyenerera ngati ochita nawo mapulani.

ID. pa * 8. Ponena za mlandu wa “Honest Partners”, Khotilo linapeza kuti Chigawo “sikuwoneka kuti chigwiritse ntchito kafukufuku pazochitika zonse” ndipo chifukwa chake Khotilo linabwezera funsolo ku Khoti Lachigawo ndi zowonjezera. funso ngati kutanthauzira kwa DOL kuli koyenera Ower Ulemu (zomwe zimafuna kuwerengera zomveka bwino za malamulo osamveka bwino). ID.

Potsirizira pake, khotilo linatsimikizira kuti khoti laling’ono linasokoneza maganizo a uphungu, koma linaphwanya lamulo la khoti lachigawo lomwe linalamula Dipatimenti ya Ntchito “kukana kuzindikira momwe ERISA alili pa ndondomekoyi kapena kukana kuzindikira omwe ali ochepa omwe ali nawo monga eni eni a malonda a deta. …[because the] Lamulo … likuyankha mafunso ofotokozera omwe khothi lachigawo liyenera kuwayankha ali m’ndende.” ID. pa 9. Gawo ili lachigamulo ndilofunika kwambiri, popeza osachepera panthawiyi, ndondomeko ya malonda a deta sikuti ndi ndondomeko imodzi yokha ya ERISA ndi Dipatimenti ya Ntchito ndi mayiko omwe amaletsedwa kuwongolera.

Masitepe otsatira

M’machitidwe, masitepe ofunikira otsatirawa atha kuchitika kukhothi lachigawo (ngakhale pali kuthekera kwa pempho loti liwunikenso ndi Fifth Circuit kapena apilo ku Khothi Lalikulu). Khoti lachigawo liyenera kuitana maphwandowo kuti awafotokozere za nkhani zomwe zafotokozedwa mu chigamulo cha Fifth Circuit. Izi zitha kutenga miyezi (ngati simuli pa ndondomeko yofulumira) ndipo zidzatsatiridwa ndi chigamulo cha khoti lachigawo chikatha. Zirizonse zomwe zingachitike, ndiye kuti achitanso apilo ku Dera lachisanu ndi gulu lotayika ndipo mwina likhoza kupitilira apo. Mwachidule, padzakhala milandu yayikulu kwambiri pankhaniyi pamabwalo aliwonse amilandu.

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