Yakwana nthawi yoti mupange pulogalamu yayitali ya chipukuta misozi ya COVID

United States ikuyang’anizana ndi vuto lazaumoyo – chisamaliro choyenera komanso chofanana kwa mamiliyoni a anthu omwe atenga kachilombo ka coronavirus kwa nthawi yayitali. Zingatenge zaka zambiri kuti timvetsetse momwe matendawa amachitikira, kukonzanso njira zodziwira zolinga, ndikupanga chithandizo choyenera. Mankhwala ambiri adzayesedwa, ena kutengera biology, ena operekedwa ndi mabungwe opeza phindu, opanda maziko asayansi. Panthawiyi, zidzakhala zovuta kuti anthu asinthe zenizeni kuchokera ku zongopeka, ndipo omwe ali ndi ndalama azilipira chithandizo, mosasamala kanthu za zomwe zalembedwa.

Posachedwa, Secretary Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS), a Rachel Levine, adafotokoza momwe boma likuyankhira ku coronavirus yatsopano. Komabe, zochepa mwazochitazi zimakhudza mwachindunji chisamaliro chachipatala komanso chipukuta misozi. Pofuna kuonetsetsa kuti anthu mamiliyoni ambiri akhudzidwa ndi chisamaliro choyenera komanso chofanana, dziko la United States liyenera kudzipereka kuti likhazikitse ndondomeko ya National Coronavirus Compensation Programme (NLCCP) yomwe imatenga nthawi yayitali.

kulemedwa kwakukulu

Pakadali pano, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ikuyerekeza kuti anthu 150 miliyoni ku United States ali ndi zizindikiro za COVID-19. Akuti mpaka 50 peresenti ya anthu omwe ali ndi COVID-19 akuwonetsabe zizindikiro miyezi inayi atadwala. Koma ngakhale 5 peresenti yokha ikakwaniritsa njira za COVID zomwe zakhala zikuchitika kwa nthawi yayitali, zikutanthauza kuti anthu 7.5 miliyoni akhudzidwa ku United States. Poyerekeza, chaka chilichonse ku United States, pafupifupi anthu 1.8 miliyoni amapezeka ndi khansa ndipo anthu 1.5 miliyoni ali ndi matenda a shuga.

Pamene mitundu yochulukirachulukira imatuluka komanso njira zodziwira matenda a coronavirus yatsopano zakhazikitsidwa kwa nthawi yayitali, titha kuyembekezera kuti kuchuluka kwa odwala omwe akufunika chithandizo asinthe. Odwala matendawa amakhala ndi zizindikiro zochepa mpaka kulumala kwakukulu. Ndipo zidzakhala zovuta kwambiri, makamaka kwa anthu omwe ali ndi matenda monga matenda a shuga kapena matenda a m’mapapo kapena amtima, kulekanitsa zizindikiro za matenda a Covid anthawi yayitali ndi omwe amayamba ndi matenda ena.

Mtolo wa nthawi yayitali wa coronavirus udzagwera m’magulu osiyanasiyana: kuphatikiza chithandizo chamankhwala, chomwe chidzayang’anire ntchito zomwe zili zofunika kwambiri pakupanga njira zowunikira komanso chithandizo chamankhwala; mabwana ambiri, onse aboma ndi achinsinsi, omwe amapereka inshuwaransi yolumala ndi thanzi; Ndi makampani ati a inshuwaransi azaumoyo omwe akuyenera kusankha chithandizo chomwe chiyenera kuperekedwa. Ma inshuwaransi azaumoyo wamba atha kupereka ndalama zilizonse zowonjezedwa kwa olemba anzawo ntchito, Medicaid ndi Medicare, omwe, chifukwa cha kuchuluka kwa odwala omwe akukhudzidwa, adzafunika thandizo lazachuma.

Zonse pamodzi, n’kosatheka kuonerera mopambanitsa vuto, kucholoŵana, ndi mtengo wochitirapo kanthu ku matenda atsopano amene angakhudze mamiliyoni a anthu. Zitha kufunikira mabiliyoni a madola ndikuyang’anizana ndi chiwopsezo chenicheni chopitirizira kusagwirizana kwa chisamaliro, kufalitsa, ndi zotsatira zake, chifukwa cha mtundu, fuko, ndalama, ndi dera.

Ganizirani chitsanzo chabwino

Poyang’anizana ndi vuto lalikululi, United States iyenera kuyang’ana chitsanzo cha pulogalamu yopambana kwambiri yothandizira dziko. Mu 1986, patadutsa zaka zambiri zamkangano, Congress idakhazikitsa National Vaccine Injury Compensation Programme (NVICP) kuti iwonetsetse kuti pali katemera wokhazikika, kuteteza opanga katemera ku zomwe anganene, ndikulipira anthu omwe ali ndi zotsatira zachipatala zomwe zimachitika kawirikawiri ndi katemera.

Lamulo latsopanoli lidawonjezera msonkho pa katemera aliyense woperekedwa, kukweza ndalama, ndikupanga njira yolipira anthu omwe ali ndi katemera. Ndi makina opanda cholakwika, okhudza HHS ndi Dipatimenti Yachilungamo (DOJ). Wotsutsa, kapena woimira wotsutsa, amapereka umboni wosonyeza kuti anavulazidwa ndi katemera, akatswiri a zachipatala a HHS amawona ngati wodandaulayo akukwaniritsa zofunikira za chakudya, ndipo mlanduwu umatumizidwa ku Dipatimenti Yachilungamo, ndi “makhoti a katemera” kuti apereke chigamulo.

Pofuna kuthandiza odandaula, pulogalamuyi yapanga Vaccine Infection Table yomwe imalemba mndandanda wa katemera wokhudzana ndi matenda enaake. Kuyambira 1988, zonena zoposa 5,000 zaperekedwa, makamaka zokhudzana ndi katemera wa chimfine. Purogalamuyi yateteza opanga ku zonena kuti ali ndi ngongole, motero achepetsa kuwopsa kwa msika, gawo lofunikira pakuwonetsetsa kuti katemera akupezeka ndikulimbikitsa chitukuko ndi kukhazikitsidwa kwa katemera watsopano. Pafupifupi magulu onse a zaumoyo amavomereza kuti njirayi yalola kuti pakhale imodzi mwa nkhani zabwino kwambiri za umoyo wa anthu ku United States: katemera wokwera kwambiri komanso wokhazikika mwa ana onse, mosasamala kanthu za chikhalidwe cha anthu, mtundu kapena fuko.

Poganizira chitsanzo ichi, United States iyenera kukhazikitsa NLCCP. Mabungwe ambiri angathandize thumba loterolo, kuphatikizapo makampani opanga mankhwala ndi makampani ena omwe apeza phindu lalikulu kuyambira pamene mliri unayamba; Ndipo makampani a inshuwalansi ya umoyo ndi olumala, omwe angapindule ndi pulogalamu yotereyi. Opanga ndondomeko athanso kuganizira zoonjezera msonkho wa katemera kuti athandizire pulogalamuyi.

M’malo mwa mabungwe a inshuwaransi olumala omwe akukonza zodandaula, zambiri zomwe zingakhale zotsutsana, gulu la akatswiri-mwinamwake maloya, mwinamwake akuluakulu a zachipatala, mwinamwake onse awiri-ayenera kukhala ndi udindo wowona ngati anthu akukwaniritsa njira zodziwiratu zomwe zatsimikiziridwa kale ndi ndalama zofanana. (Njira iyi ingafanane ndi ya National Vaccine Injury Compensation Programme.)

Chofunika kwambiri, iwo omwe alibe inshuwaransi yolemala amatha kuyika madandaulo, njira yomwe ingathandize kuchepetsa kusiyana kwa chisamaliro ndi chipukuta misozi. Gulu lomwelo la akatswiri litha kusankhanso chithandizo chanthawi yayitali cha COVID chomwe pulogalamu kapena makampani a inshuwaransi yaumoyo ayenera kuthandizira. Zosankhazi zidzakhazikitsidwa ndi malingaliro ochokera kumagulu azachipatala a akatswiri ndipo ali ndi phindu lowonjezera lothandizira ma inshuwaransi pazovuta zopanga zisankhozi.

zopinga zomwe zingatheke

Pulogalamu yapadziko lonse yotereyi ingakumane ndi mavuto.

Choyamba, zitha kukhala zovuta kutanthauzira COVID yayitali pogwiritsa ntchito njira zomwe akufuna. Komabe, kudalira njira zodziyimira pawokha kumawonjezera zovuta zakusiyanitsa pakati pazizindikiro za COVID zazitali komanso matenda amthupi ndi aubongo.

Chachiwiri, anthu mamiliyoni ambiri angafunike kugwiritsa ntchito pulogalamuyi. Zidzakhala zofunikira kukhazikitsa dongosolo la kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe kake kamene kamatsimikizira kuti anthu onse ali ndi mwayi wopezeka, mosasamala kanthu za luso lawo laukadaulo ndi zamagetsi.

Chachitatu, anthu onse ku United States ayenera kukhala oyenerera pulogalamuyi osati okhawo omwe ali ndi inshuwaransi yazaumoyo, inshuwaransi yolumala, kapena omwe adatemera. Apo ayi, kusiyana kwakukulu kwa chisamaliro ndi malipiro kudzaphatikizidwa mu pulogalamu yokha.

Chachinayi, monga momwe zilili ndi pulogalamu yapadziko lonse, ndalama zoyenera ziyenera kutsimikiziridwa. Ndikupangira magwero angapo pamwambapa ndipo akaphatikizidwa, atha kupereka chithandizo chofunikira pomwe akupereka chithandizo chambiri. Chachisanu, opanga mfundo akuyenera kukonza pulojekitiyi kuti ikwaniritse zosowa zenizeni za coronavirus yomwe yatenga nthawi yayitali. Kuphatikiza pa kutsatira chitsanzo cha chisamaliro cha NVICP, angaganizirenso za Medicare End Stage Nephrology Program ndi Ryan White AIDS Program.

Posamalira ndi kuthandizira mamiliyoni a anthu omwe ali ndi olumala kapena olumala chifukwa cha nthawi yayitali ya coronavirus, United States ikukumana ndi ntchito yayikulu. Popanda pulogalamu yapadziko lonse, anthu sangapeze chisamaliro chomwe akufunikira, kusiyana kwa chisamaliro kudzakula, odwala adzapatsidwa chithandizo chosagwira ntchito, ndipo ndalama zoletsedwa zidzaperekedwa kwa olemba ntchito, maboma ndi maboma. Pokhapokha popanga pulogalamu yadziko lonse yomwe tingathe kuwonetsetsa kuti pali njira yosamalira bwino komanso yofanana kwa odwala omwe akhala akudwala COVID kwa nthawi yayitali.

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