kupulumuka kwa chisamaliro chaumoyo

Zaumoyo – Zodandaula ndi Milandu ya Khothi Lalikulu


Mu 2022 ndi kupitirira apo, milandu yambiri yokhudzana ndi zaumoyo idzafika ku Khoti Lalikulu.

Chitetezo cha Odwala ndi Affordable Care Act (ACA)

Ngakhale Khotilo lidalimbikitsa Chitetezo cha Odwala ndi Affordable Care Act (“ACA”) monga momwe zilili California vs TexasMilandu ina yokhudzana ndi zofunikira za ACA ikupitirirabe.

Mu chimodzi mwa zochitika zimenezo, Braidwood Mgmt. Inc., v. Becerra, olemba ntchito awiri ndi anthu angapo adazengedwa mlandu kuti athetse zofunikira za ACA’s Preventive Services. ndidzakhala. Compl., No. 4: 20-cv-00283-O (ND Tex. 20 July 2020) (ECF No. 14). Chofunikirachi chimachepetsa zopinga zandalama zolepheretsa kupeza ntchito zofunika, monga kuyezetsa khansa, matenda amtima, ndi matenda ena osachiritsika, pofuna kuti mapulani ambiri a inshuwaransi yazaumoyo azilipira popanda mtengo kwa wodwalayo. Izi zikuphatikiza mayeso odzitetezera opitilira 100, komanso njira zakulera zovomerezeka ndi FDA ndi pre-exposure prophylaxis (“PrEP”) popewa kutenga kachilombo ka HIV. Anthu opitilira 150 miliyoni omwe ali ndi inshuwaransi yazaumoyo payekha apindula ndi izi.

Pamene Congress idalemba lamulo loletsa ziphuphu, silinatchule kuti ndi ntchito ziti zomwe zimakhudzidwa ndi lamuloli. M’malo mwake, idapereka ntchitoyi ku mabungwe atatu osiyanasiyana aboma omwe ali ndi ukatswiri wa mbiri yakale – gulu la US Preventive Services Task Force (“USPST”), Advisory Committee on Immunisation Practices (“ACIP”), ndi Health Resources and Services Administration (“HRSA” ). 42 USC § 300gg-13 (a). Kapangidwe kameneka kamalola UPSST, ACIP, ndi HRSA kuwonjezera ntchito zatsopano popanda Congress kuti ikhazikitse lamulo latsopano.

Pamlandu wawo, odandaulawo akuti zofunikira za ACA’s Preventive Services ziyenera kuchotsedwa. ndidzakhala. Zokwanira, Braidwood, No. 4: 20-cv-00283-O (ECF No. 14). Choyamba, amanena kuti lamuloli likuphwanya Malamulo a Malamulo a US chifukwa pulezidenti samasankha mamembala a UPSST, ACIP, ndi HRSA omwe amasankha ntchito zomwe zidzachitike. ID. ¶ 70. Chachiwiri, amanena kuti zikuphwanya lamulo la Constitutional qualifications chifukwa limapereka mphamvu za utsogoleri pa UPSST, yomwe pulezidenti alibe mphamvu zoyang’anira. ID. 90. Chachitatu, amanena kuti zikuphwanya mfundo yosapereka mphamvu chifukwa boma limapereka mphamvu zopangira zisankho ku mabungwewo popanda kupereka “mfundo yomveka bwino” kuti itsogolere nzeru za mabungwe. ID. 85. Pomaliza, akuti kuphimba PrEP pofuna kupewa kachilombo ka HIV kumaphwanya lamulo la Religious Freedom Restoration Act. ID. 108.

Boma lidapereka chigamulo chokana, ponena kuti Congress idalamula kuti izi zitheke komanso njira zomwe UPSST, ACIP, ndi HRSA amagwiritsa ntchito popanga mndandanda wazinthu. Tikuwona imfa. kukana maola 24-25, Braidwood, No. 4: 20-cv-00283-O (ECF No. 20). Boma linanenanso kuti anthu omwe amayang’anira mabungwe omwe amayang’anira ACIP ndi HRSA amasankhidwa ndi purezidenti ndikuvomerezedwa ndi Senate, ID. ali ndi zaka 21-22, komanso kuti mamembala a UPSST ndi ACIP si antchito omwe amafunika kulembedwa ntchito, ID. ku 23.

Pokana pang’ono pempho lokana, imbani #1, Braidwood, No. 4: 20-cv-00283-O (ECF No. 35), khoti lachigawo ku Texas pakali pano likulingalira mapempho a zipani za chigamulo chachidule. Mosasamala kanthu za chotulukapo, mlanduwo ukhoza kukachita apilo ku Bwalo Lachisanu ndipo pamapeto pake ku Khoti Lalikulu.

ADA ndi Olmstead

The Americans with Disabilities Act (“ADA”) ndi Chigamulo cha Khothi Lalikulu mu Olmsted vs LC, 527 US 581 (1999), imafuna kuti mabungwe aboma azipereka chithandizo m’malo ophatikizika kwambiri oyenerana ndi zosowa za anthu olumala. Izi zimathandiza okalamba kukhala m’nyumba zawo ndi madera awo akamakula. Pafupifupi 80 peresenti ya akuluakulu azaka 50 kapena kuposerapo amati akufuna kukalamba kunyumba kwawo. Komabe, chifukwa chakuti anthu amakonda kukhala olumala akamakalamba kapena kukhala ndi moyo wautali ndi olumala, amakhala pachiopsezo chokakamizika kusamukira kumalo osungirako okalamba kapena malo ena kuti akalandire chithandizo chofunikira ngati sangathe kupeza kapena kulumikizana ndi chithandizo m’deralo. Odandaula payekha ndi Dipatimenti Yachilungamo ya US akwaniritsa bwino ADA ndi Olmsted motsutsana ndi mabungwe aboma kuti awonetsetse kupezeka kwa ntchito mderalo. Mwachitsanzo, onanimgwirizano womaliza, United States vs North CarolinaNo. 5: 12-cv-00557-D (EDNC August 23, 2012) (ECF No. 2-2) (Settlement Agreement Dissolving Department of Justice Olmsted kufufuza kwa dongosolo la boma la umoyo wamaganizo; kukulitsa mwayi wokhala m’nyumba za anthu omwe ali ndi matenda amisala); mgwirizano womaliza, United States vs. Rhode Island#1: 13-cv-00442 (DRI 13 Jun 2013) (ECF No. 4-3) (mgwirizano wokhazikika womwe umafuna kuti boma lisinthe kuti lipereke ana olemala aluntha ndi chitukuko ndi ntchito zapagulu).

mu Florida vs United Statesboma la Florida linapempha Khoti Lalikulu kuti liwunikenso chigamulo cha Circuit cha khumi ndi chimodzi chotsimikizira kuti Dipatimenti ya Chilungamo ili ndi mphamvu zotsutsa mayiko chifukwa chophwanya udindo wawo pansi pa ADA ndi Olmsted. Izi ndizofunikira chifukwa Dipatimenti Yachilungamo ndi doko lalikulu la ADA Title II ndi Olmsted.

mu United States vs MississippiFifth Circuit ikuyang’ana apilo yomwe khothi lachigawo linagamula kuti dongosolo la misala la Mississippi limadalira kwambiri kukhazikitsidwa ndipo silipereka chithandizo chamtundu wa Title II ku ADA ndi Olmsted Zimafunika. Tikuwona kulamula note. & papa. pa 51, No. 3: 16-cv-00622-CWR-FKB (September 3, 2019) (ECF No. 234). AARP ndi AARP Foundation apereka chidule chachidule chofotokozera kufunika kokhazikitsa ADA kuti awonetsetse kuti akuluakulu atha kulandira chithandizo m’deralo osati kukakamizidwa kukhala kumalo osungirako anamwino kapena malo ena. Ponseponse, kuthetsa nkhanizi kudzakhudza kukwaniritsidwa kwamtsogolo kwa ADA komanso kuthekera kwa okalamba olumala kukalamba m’deralo.

Kusiyana

Mliri wa Covid-19 wawonetsa kusiyana kwanthawi yayitali pazaumoyo kutengera mtundu ndi zina. Mwachitsanzo, ku Louisiana, koyambirira kwa mliriwu, anthu akuda adapanga 72% ya kufa kwa COVID-19, pomwe iwo amangopanga 32% yokha ya anthu m’boma. Maboma ena a maboma ndi ang’onoang’ono akuchitapo kanthu kuti athetse kusiyana kumeneku.

mu Jacobson vs Bassett, Circuit Yachiwiri ikuyang’ana apilo ya chigamulo cha khoti lachigawo chokana pempho lachidziwitso choyambirira choletsa malangizo a Dipatimenti ya Zaumoyo ku New York kuti athetse kusiyana kwa chisamaliro chaumoyo. 3:22-CV-00033 (MAD/ML), 2022 WL 1039691 (NDNY Mar 25, 2022). Maupangiri amalimbikitsa kuti asing’anga aganizire ngati wodwala yemwe ali ndi COVID-19 ndi wamtundu wopanda mzungu, Puerto Rico, kapena Latino powunika mwayi wa wodwalayo kuti adwale kwambiri komanso ngati angapereke chithandizo chamankhwala chosowa pakamwa. Wodandaulayo, pulofesa wa zamalamulo ku yunivesite ya Cornell, adapempha kuti apereke lamulo loletsa kutsatiridwa ndi kutsatiridwa kwa lamuloli. Lamuloli akuti linaphwanya lamulo lakhumi ndi chinayi la Constitution ya United States, Civil Rights Act ya 1964, ndi Gawo 1557 la Anti-Corruption Act potengera kusankhana mitundu. Jacobson, 2022 WL 1039691 pa * 1. Khoti Lachigawo linathetsa mlanduwo chifukwa chosagwira ntchito. ID. mu *4-5. Wodandaulayo tsopano akupempha chigamulochi ku Circuit Yachiwiri. Anzake angapo, kuphatikizapo National Medical Association, American Medical Association, ndi Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights by Law, anapereka chidule chothandizira New York State.

COVID-19 ndi Immunology

Khothi posachedwapa litha kuthana ndi kuthekera kwa wokhala kumalo osungirako anthu okalamba kuti akasumire malo osungirako okalamba kukhothi la boma chifukwa chovulala komanso kufa komwe kudachitika panthawi ya mliri. Panopa Khoti Lalikulu Kwambiri liri Glenhaven Healthcare vs Saldana pempho. pempho la certural order, Glenhaven Healthcare vs Saldana (2022) (No. 22-192). Wopemphayo, malo osungirako anamwino, akupempha khoti kuti liwunikenso chigamulo cha Ninth Circuit chomwe chimati Public Emergency Preparedness and Emergency Preparedness Act ya 2005 (“Preparedness Act”) siyimayimilira kwathunthu milandu ya boma pakuwonongeka komwe kumachitika pa mliri. . Saldana v. Malingaliro a kampani Glenhaven Healthcare LLC27 F.4 679 (9th Cir.2022).

Kudutsa mu December 2005, PREP Act imavomereza Mlembi wa HHS kuti apange chilengezo cha PREP kuti matenda kapena matenda ena amachititsa ngozi yadzidzidzi. 42 USC § 247d-6d(b). Lamulo la PREP limapereka “mabungwe ophimbidwa,” kuphatikiza malo osungira anamwino, chitetezo chokwanira kuzinthu zomwe zimachokera ku oyang’anira kapena kugwiritsa ntchito “njira zophimbidwa,” monga katemera, zida zodzitetezera, ndi mankhwala. ID. § 247d – 6d (i) (1). Kutetezedwa kumeneku kumaphatikizapo zonena pansi pa malamulo a federal ndi boma. ID. § 247d – 6d (b)[8)[8). Pali kuchotserapo pa madandaulo okhudza kulakwa mwadala, koma zodandaulazi ziyenera kuperekedwa ku Khothi Lalikulu la US ku Columbia. ID. § 247d-6d(d)-(e). Ngati zapambana, zonenazi zimalipidwa kudzera mu thumba la federal. ID. § 247d-6e.

Pa Januware 31, 2020, mlembi wa HHS, Alex M. Azar II, adalengeza za ngozi zadzidzidzi pothana ndi mliri wa COVID-19. HHS pambuyo pake inafalitsa chilengezo cholimbikitsanso chitetezo cha PREP Act kuti igwire ntchito kuyambira pa February 4, 2020 mpaka pa Okutobala 1, 2024. Kusintha kwa Disembala 2020 ku chilengezochi kukuti “pali nkhani zazamalamulo ndi mfundo za federal komanso malamulo ndi mfundo zazikulu za federal. zokonda, pokhala ndi kuyankha kogwirizana komanso kokwanira ku mliri wa COVID-19 pakati pa mabungwe a Federal, maboma, am’deralo, ndi mabungwe aboma. Wopemphayo akunena kuti mawuwa akutanthauza kuti milandu yotsutsana ndi malo osungirako anamwino a khoti la boma iyenera kutumizidwa ku khoti la federal ndi chitetezo cha PREP chimasulidwa. pempho pa 25, Glenhaven Healthcare v. Saldana.

Pamenepa, wokhala ku Glenhaven Healthcare Center ku Glendale, California adamwalira ndi COVID-19. Saldana v. Malingaliro a kampani Glenhaven Healthcare LLC, Mlandu wa Cv 20-5631 FMO (MAAx), 2020 WL 6713995 (CD Cal. 14 Oct. 2020). Banja lake linakasuma kukhoti la boma. Glenhaven atatengera mlanduwu kukhoti la federal, potchula lamulo la PREP Act, banjali lidafuna kubwezeretsanso mlanduwu kukhoti la boma. ID. Khoti lachigawo linapereka chigamulo chowatsekera chisanadze kuweruzidwa m’chigamulo chomwe pambuyo pake chinachirikizidwa ndi Circuit yachisanu ndi chinayi. ID.Ndipo the Aff’d 27 F.4th 679. Malo Othandizira Anamwino tsopano akupempha Khothi Lalikulu kuti lisinthe chigamulo cha Dera lachisanu ndi chinayi.

Chachiwiri (mkangano ukuyembekezera mkati Leroy vs. Hume21-2158), chachitatu, chachisanu, chachisanu ndi chiwiri, chakhumi ndi chimodzi (mkangano udakalipo; malingaliro akuyembekezera) Makomiti awonanso chimodzimodzi, kapena aganiziranso za nkhaniyi. Milandu iyi ndi yofunika chifukwa ithandiza kudziwa momwe anthu okhala kumalo osungirako anamwino ndi opulumuka atha kuwerengera malo ovulala omwe achitika panthawi ya mliri. AARP Foundation ndi AARP adapereka chidziwitso chachidule m’chigawo chachiwiri mu Lady Condolences Care Ctr. Kulimbana ndi Rivera – Zeas, Mlandu womwe unabweretsedwa ndi mfundo zofanana. No. 21-02164. Chidule chathu chinathandizira kuthekera kwa anthu okhala kumalo osungirako anthu okalamba kuti akasumire malo osungirako okalamba kukhothi la boma chifukwa cha zowonongeka zomwe zachitika panthawi ya mliri.

Mami Jyamvi

mgyamfi@aarp.org

Meryl Grenadier

mgrenadier@aarp.org

Onani chithunzithunzi chonse cha Supreme Court

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