Pafupifupi anthu 30 miliyoni aku America alibe inshuwaransi yazaumoyo

Mu 2021, pamene mliri wa coronavirus (COVID-19) udakulirakulira, anthu 27 miliyoni – kapena 8.3% ya anthu – sanakhale ndi chitetezo, malinga ndi lipoti lochokera ku Census Bureau. Ngakhale kuti izi zikuyimira gawo lalikulu la anthu opanda chithandizo panthawi yavuto lalikulu la thanzi la anthu, chiwerengero cha anthu opanda inshuwalansi ya umoyo chakhala chokhazikika pazaka zingapo zapitazi. Nayi chidule cha zomwe zachitika posachedwa kuti zidziwitse momwe anthu aku America amapezera chidziwitso chawo, momwe kufalitsa kumasiyanasiyana malinga ndi kuchuluka kwa anthu komanso zaka, momwe ziwerengero zasinthira pakapita nthawi, komanso momwe mapulogalamu akuluakulu aboma monga Medicaid akukhudzira.

Mliriwu sunakhudze kwambiri kuchuluka kwa anthu opanda inshuwaransi yazaumoyo

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Zopanda inshuwaransi mliri usanachitike

Zaka khumi zisanakhazikitsidwe lamulo la Affordable Care Act (ACA) mu 2010, kuchuluka kwa inshuwaransi kunali 15.0%. Mu 2014, zofunikira za ACA zinayamba kugwira ntchito zomwe zinathandiza mayiko kukulitsa kuyenerera kwa Medicaid ndikupanga misika ya inshuwalansi ya umoyo. Ngakhale kuti zotsatira zimasiyana malinga ndi boma, kusintha kwa ndondomekozi kunathandiza kuti chiwerengero cha anthu omwe alibe inshuwalansi chichepe ndi 3.0 peresenti m’dziko lonse m’chaka choyamba. Ndi mayiko owonjezera omwe akutengera kukula kwa Medicaid m’katikati mwa 2010s, chiwerengero chosatetezedwa chikupitirirabe, kutsika pansi pa 10.0 peresenti ndipo chakhalapo kuyambira pamenepo.

Mitengo yopanda inshuwaransi mu 2021

Deta ya Census ikuwonetsa kuti pali anthu ambiri omwe ali ndi inshuwaransi mu 2021 kuposa mu 2018 – chiwonjezeko cha anthu 4.7 miliyoni. Kuwonjezeka kwa chiwerengero cha anthu omwe ali ndi inshuwaransi kunayendetsedwa ndi kuchuluka kwa anthu omwe adalembetsa nawo inshuwalansi ya umoyo yomwe boma limapereka. Zosintha pazambiri zapakati pa 2018 ndi 2021 zitha kukhala zokhudzana ndi kusintha kwa anthu ogwira ntchito munthawi yonseyi ya mliriwu komanso kusintha kwachuma kwaposachedwa, komanso mfundo zothana ndi mliri wa COVID-19.

Deta ya kalembera imasonyeza kuti chiwerengero cha 8.3 peresenti mu 2021 chinali chosiyana kwambiri ndi chiwerengero cha 8.5 peresenti mu 2018. Kusintha kwakukulu komwe kunathandizira izi kunali kuti chiwerengero cha anthu omwe ali ndi inshuwalansi ya umoyo wa anthu chinawonjezeka ndi 1.3 peresenti. pakati pa 2018 ndi 2021, zomwe zimachepetsa kuchepa kwa kufalitsa kwachinsinsi. Mwachindunji, chithandizo cha Medicare chinawonjezeka 0.6 peresenti kuchokera ku 17.8 peresenti kufika pa 18.4 peresenti pa chaka; Ndipo chithandizo cha Medicaid chinakula pang’ono, ndi 1.0 peresenti – kuchokera pa 17.9 peresenti kufika pa 18.9 peresenti.

Kuwonjezeka kwa kudalira inshuwaransi yazaumoyo kumachokera ku mfundo yakuti anthu ambiri ayamba kulandira Medicaid ndi CHIP chifukwa cha kuchotsedwa ntchito ndi zomwe zili mu lamulo loyamba la Coronavirus Response Act lomwe limafuna kuti mayiko azionetsetsa kuti akulembetsa mosalekeza. Kulembetsa ku Medicaid ndi CHIP kwawonjezeka ndi 26 peresenti kuyambira pomwe mliriwu udayamba, kuwonetsa kapangidwe kake kosagwirizana.

Inshuwaransi yazaumoyo ya anthu onse komanso payekha

Lipoti la kalembera limaperekanso chidziwitso chofunikira pazachipatala ku America panthawi ya mliri. Inshuwaransi yaumoyo imaperekedwa ndi magwero osiyanasiyana m’magulu achinsinsi komanso aboma. Census Bureau imatanthauzira mapulogalamu mu gawo lililonse:

  • Inshuwaransi payekha Mapulani a inshuwaransi yotengera ntchito ndi mapulani amaphatikiza zogulidwa mwachindunji pamsika. Zimaphatikizaponso TRICARE, yomwe imatumikira asilikali.
  • General inshuwalansi Zimaphatikizapo mapulogalamu a Medicare, Medicaid, CHIP, ndi Veterans Health.

Mu 2021, mapulogalamu a inshuwaransi azinsinsi adaphimba pafupifupi anthu aku America ambiri kuposa mapulogalamu aboma. Mwa iwo omwe ali ndi inshuwaransi yazaumoyo mu 2021, anthu 216 miliyoni adalembetsa pulogalamu yachinsinsi ndipo 117 miliyoni adalembetsa nawo boma. Kuyerekeza kwachiwongolero sikuli kosiyana chifukwa anthu amatha kulipidwa ndi mitundu yambiri ya inshuwaransi yazaumoyo pachaka, motero kuchuluka kwa ziwerengerozi ndikwambiri kuposa kuchuluka kwa anthu aku United States.

Anthu ambiri anali ndi inshuwaransi yazaumoyo mu 2021

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Mapulani otengera ntchito amakhala oposa theka la anthu okhala ndi inshuwaransi; Magwero achiwiri akulu kwambiri omwe adathandizira anali Medicaid ndi Medicare. Kuchokera mu 2018 mpaka 2021, chiwerengero cha anthu olembetsa m’mapulani okhudzana ndi ntchito chatsika ndi anthu pafupifupi 65,000. Munthawi yomweyi, kulembetsa ku Medicare kudakwera ndi anthu pafupifupi 2.5 miliyoni, kukwera mpaka 60 miliyoni mu 2021; Kusinthaku kudachitika mwanjira ina chifukwa cha kuchuluka kwa anthu azaka 65 ndi kupitilira apo.

Mapulani okhudzana ndi ntchito anali otchuka kwambiri mu 2018 ndi 2021

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Mitengo yopanda inshuwaransi imasiyanasiyana m’maiko onse ndipo zimadalira makamaka ngati boma lakulitsa kuyenerera kwa Medicaid. Monga gawo la ACA, mayiko a 32 ndi District of Columbia adakulitsa kuyenerera kwa Medicaid isanafike Januwale 2019. Kuyambira pamenepo, mayiko owonjezera atenga ndondomeko yowonjezera kuyenerera, kubweretsa chiwerengero chonse ku mayiko 39 ndi maulamuliro. Mu 2021, anthu pafupifupi 62 miliyoni amathandizidwa ndi Medicaid. Onse Medicaid ndi CHIP amapereka inshuwaransi yaumoyo kwa anthu omwe ali pachiwopsezo, kuphatikiza ana. Mu 2021, chiwopsezo cha ana omwe sanakhale ndi inshuwaransi m’maboma omwe kuyenerera kowonjezereka kunali 4.0 peresenti, pomwe mayiko omwe sanafutukule Medicaid anali ndi chiwongola dzanja cha 7.1 peresenti. Mofananamo, chiwerengero chachikulu cha akuluakulu ogwira ntchito anali osatetezedwa m’mayiko omwe sanawonjezere Medicaid.

Mu 2021, chiwopsezo cha anthu osatetezedwa chinali pafupifupi kuwirikiza kawiri m'maboma omwe sanawonjezere Medicaid.

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Kusamalira thanzi ndi zaka

Chaka chilichonse chiyambireni kukhazikitsidwa kwa Health Insurance Act, mitengo yopanda inshuwaransi yakhala yotsikirapo kwa magulu onse azaka kuposa momwe idakhalira isanakhazikitsidwe. Mlingo wopanda inshuwaransi wa anthu aku America azaka 65 ndi kupitilira apo udangowonjezera 0.3 peresenti pakati pa 2018 ndi 2021; Akadali otsika kwambiri pazaka zilizonse, Medicare ikuphimba 93.4 peresenti ya anthuwa mu 2021.

Kuchokera mu 2018 mpaka 2021, chiwongola dzanja chopanda inshuwaransi cha akuluakulu ogwira ntchito – azaka zapakati pa 19 mpaka 64 – chatsika kuchokera pa 11.7 mpaka 11.6 peresenti. Malinga ndi kuwunika kwa Kaiser Family Foundation, 74 peresenti ya achikulire osagwira ntchito mu 2019 adatchula kukwera mtengo ngati chifukwa chomwe amasowa chithandizo. M’mayiko omwe sanawonjezere kuyenerera kwa Medicaid, akuluakulu ambiri ogwira ntchito agwera mu “gawo lothandizira,” amapeza ndalama zambiri kuti ayenerere Medicaid, koma osakwanira kuti athe kulandira ngongole za msonkho zomwe zimapangitsa kugula inshuwalansi yachinsinsi m’misika kukhala yotsika mtengo. .

Chiwongola dzanja chopanda inshuwaransi chakhala chofanana m'magulu onse kuyambira mliriwu

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Kwa ana osakwana zaka 19, chiwerengero chopanda inshuwaransi chinatsika kuchokera ku 5.5% mu 2018 kufika ku 5.0% mu 2021. Chiwerengero cha ana omwe anaphimbidwa ndi ndondomeko yogulira mwachindunji ya makolo adatsika ndi pafupifupi 289,000 pakati pa 2018 ndi 2021, koma izi zidasinthidwa ndi kuwonjezeka kwa 404%, Ana 000 omwe adaphimbidwa ndi Medicaid ndi CHIP komanso kuwonjezeka kwa 133,000 pamapulani otengera ntchito. Kuwonjezeka kwa anthu olembetsa kungawonetse kusintha kwachuma, kusintha kwa mfundo, komanso kukhudzidwa kwakanthawi kwamalamulo okhudzana ndi coronavirus. Mwachitsanzo, lamulo loti anthu olembetsa alembetse kwakanthawi kochepa lopangidwa ndi Families First Coronavirus Response Act lachepetsa kutayika kwa anthu omwe amalembetsa kulembetsa ndikulembetsanso pakanthawi kochepa. Kulembetsa kwa Medicaid kwawonjezeka kwa miyezi 28 yotsatizana, koma kuwonjezeka kwa mwezi uliwonse kukuwoneka kuti kukucheperachepera posachedwapa.

Kutsika kwa ana osatetezedwa kunayendetsedwa ndi kuwonjezeka kwa chiwerengero cha Medicaid / CHIP

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Kutetezedwa kwaumoyo ndi mtundu

Pamene mliriwo unkayandikira, anthu omwe sanali azungu aku America anali ndi ziwopsezo zapamwamba kwambiri zopanda inshuwaransi. Izi zikupitilizabe kutsimikizika pazambiri za mliriwu, chifukwa awa ndi magulu omwe akhudzidwa kwambiri ndi COVID-19 pankhani yantchito ndi thanzi. Mu 2021, 40.0 peresenti ya anthu anali amitundu, koma anali 62.8 peresenti ya anthu osatetezedwa.

Anthu amitundu yosiyanasiyana akadali gulu lopanda chikhulupiriro

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kuyang’anira

Ngakhale kuti chiwerengerochi chakwera kwambiri m’zaka khumi zapitazi, anthu aku America pafupifupi 30 miliyoni akadali opanda inshuwalansi. Panthawi ya mliriwu, chiwerengero cha anthu aku America omwe sanakhale ndi inshuwaransi chakhala chokhazikika, mwa zina chifukwa kuyenerera kwa Medicaid kwawonjezeka.

Kuyang’ana m’tsogolomu, olemba ndondomeko ayenera kupitirizabe kugwiritsira ntchito ndondomeko kuti apititse patsogolo kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka kayendetsedwe ka zaumoyo ku US, kuti apezeke mosavuta komanso mosavuta. Ndalama zonse zothandizira zaumoyo ku United States zikuyembekezeka kuwerengera pafupifupi gawo limodzi mwa magawo asanu a chuma cha 2025. Gawo la federal la chiwerengerochi ndi lalikulu komanso likukula, ndikugogomezera kufunika kozindikira ndi kukhazikitsa njira zothetsera ntchito zothandizira zaumoyo ku United States. States, komanso kuthana ndi oyendetsa ngongole za federal, ndikukonzekeretsa bwino anthu kuti athane ndi ziwopsezo zazikulu zaumoyo, monga mliri wa coronavirus.


zokhudzana: Chifukwa Chiyani Anthu Aku America Akulipira Zambiri Zaumoyo?


Chithunzi chojambula: John Moore/Getty Images

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