Zotukuka mu gawo lazaumoyo

Mliri wa COVID-19 wakulitsa nkhawa zomwe zakhala zikuchitika kwanthawi yayitali kuti chithandizo chachipatala ku Canada chomwe chithandizidwa ndi boma chikuvutika ndi kusowa kwachangu komanso kuchepa kwa ntchito. Pali kusowa kwa mwayi wopeza chithandizo choyambirira m’dziko lonselo motsogozedwa ndi kusowa kwakukulu kwa madotolo am’banja.[1] Palinso kusowa koopsa kwa anamwino, komwe kukukulirakulira.[2] M’chilimwe chatha, zipinda zingapo zadzidzidzi m’matauni ndi kumidzi ku Canada zidakakamizika kutseka kwakanthawi chifukwa cha kuchepa kwa ogwira ntchito yazaumoyo.

Kuperewera kwa anthu ogwira ntchito kumeneku kumatanthauza kuti anthu aku Canada omwe akufuna chisamaliro tsopano akuyembekezera nthawi yayitali kuti alandire chithandizo chamankhwala ndi maopaleshoni, kuphatikiza chisamaliro chachangu.[3] Pamene nthawi yodikirira ikuchulukirachulukira, zokambirana zambiri zikukhudzana ndi ubwino wa mabungwe aboma motsutsana ndi mabungwe aboma popereka chithandizo chamankhwala.

Njira zothandizira zaumoyo ku Canada zimathandizidwa ndi ndalama ndikuyendetsedwa mkati mwazovuta zomwe zikukhudza maboma azigawo, madera ndi feduro.[4] Pansi pa ndondomekoyi, boma la federal limakhazikitsa miyezo ya zaumoyo m’dziko lonse ndikupereka ndalama zina, ndipo maboma a zigawo ndi zigawo amagwirizanitsa ndikupereka chithandizo chamankhwala kwa anthu aku Canada.[5] Zigawo ndi madera ali ndi udindo woyang’anira ndi kupereka chithandizo chamankhwala, kuphatikizapo kugwirizanitsa mphamvu zachipatala ndi ntchito.

The Canadian Health Act (“cha“)[6] Imakhazikitsa njira zopezera ndalama zothandizira anthu ku Canada, zomwe zimatchedwa Medicare, zomwe zimagwira ntchito zofunika pachipatala, monga zipatala ndi madokotala, komanso chisamaliro chamankhwala m’chipatala. The cha Ikufotokozanso njira zomwe zigawo ndi madera ayenera kutsatira kuti alandire ndalama za federal. Makamaka, a cha Malipiro owonjezera kapena zolipiritsa ogwiritsa ntchito pazachipatala zomwe ali ndi inshuwaransi ndizoletsedwa.[7] Mfundo ya cha Ndikuwonetsetsa kuti anthu onse aku Canada ali ndi mwayi wopeza chithandizo cha inshuwaransi, popanda chindapusa chachindunji panthawi yomwe akugwira ntchito.

Kuti zigwirizane ndi ndondomeko ya ndalama za federal, zigawo ndi zigawo zimakhazikitsa malamulo ofotokozera ndondomeko ya inshuwalansi ya umoyo wa anthu kuchigawo kapena chigawo chomwe chikugwirizana ndi zomwe zakhazikitsidwa mu cha.

Ku British Columbia (makamaka oyenera pazokambirana pansipa), the Medicare Protection Act (“MPA”) ndi lamulo logwirizana.[8] The MPA Anapangidwa kuti “akhale ndi njira zothandizira anthu onse komanso zokhazikika zachuma ku British Columbia momwe kupeza chithandizo chamankhwala chofunikira kumatengera zosowa m’malo mwa luso la munthu kulipira,” lolembedwa ndi BC Public Health Insurance Plan: “Medicine Services Plan” (“MSP“).[9] The MPA Madokotala olembetsedwa ndi MSP amaletsedwa kwa odwala omwe amalipiritsa mwachinsinsi pazithandizo zomwe zimapitilira mtengo wolipiridwa ndi MSP komanso kugulitsa inshuwaransi yazaumoyo pazithandizo zoperekedwa ndi MSP ndikoletsedwa.[10]

Mlandu wa Campy

Udindo wachipatala ku Canada wakhala mkangano wautali pakati pa anthu ndi makhothi. Pa July 15, 2022, Bwalo la Apilo la British Columbia linapereka zifukwa zake Cambie Surgeries v. British Columbia (Prosecutor), 2022 BCCA 245, Kuchotsedwa kwa Apilo ndi Chigamulo chotsutsana ndi Kukula kwa Private Health Care. Chigamulochi ndi chitukuko chaposachedwa kwambiri cha BC mumkangano wautali wamilandu pakati pa boma ndi omwe angakhale othandizira azaumoyo ku Canada.

Chigamulo cha mayesero

Poyambirira, odandaula, zipatala ziwiri, ndi gulu la odwala adatsutsa kuti Gawo 14, 17, 18, ndi 45 la MPANdipo the[11] Zosagwirizana ndi malamulo chifukwa zimalepheretsa bwino odwala ku British Columbia kupeza chithandizo chamankhwala chofunikira kudzera m’mabungwe apadera omwe anthu sangakwanitse kupereka chithandizo panthawi yake. Mwachindunji, otsutsawo adanena kuti zomwe zatsutsidwa zimaphwanya Ndime 7 (Moyo, ufulu ndi chitetezo cha munthu) ndi 15 (Kufanana) pangano.

Mu Seputembala 2020, Khothi Lalikulu la BC lidapereka chigamulo chamasamba 880 chogwirizana ndi malamulo omwe akutsutsidwa, ndikuletsa kukulitsidwa kwachipatala chapayekha kukhala zofunikira pazachipatala ku BC.[12] Chofunika kwambiri, khotilo lidapeza kuti umboni usanachitike udawonetsa kulumikizana pakati pa kupezeka kwa njira yachinsinsi yofananira komanso nthawi yayitali yodikirira m’chipatala chaboma.[13]

chigamulo cha apilo

Pochita apilo, odandaula / odandaulawo adanena kuti woweruza milandu adalakwitsa pazowona ndi malamulo pakuwunika kwake kwa Gawo 7.

Ndime 7 ya pangano Limanena kuti “aliyense ali ndi kuyenera kwa moyo, ufulu, ndi chisungiko cha munthu ndi ufulu wosalandidwa zinthuzo kupatulapo motsatira mfundo zazikulu za chilungamo.” Kutsimikizira kuphwanya Ndime 7 ndi njira ziwiri: wotsutsa ayenera kutsimikizira (1) kuti zomwe zimatsutsidwa zimasokoneza kapena kulanda odwala moyo wawo, ufulu, ndi chitetezo cha munthu; ndi (ii) kulandidwako sikukugwirizana ndi mfundo zofunika za chilungamo. Kuphwanya Gawo 7 kungakhale koyenera pansi pa Gawo 1, lomwe cholinga chake ndi kuonetsetsa kuti malamulo omwe amaphwanya ufulu wa munthu aliyense, ngati akwaniritsa zofunikira zina, akhoza kutsatiridwa pamene zosowa za ena – ubwino wamba – zikuwonetsa zotsatira zoterozo.

Chief Justice Bowman ndi Justice Harris adalembera ambiri kuti zigamulo zomwe zatsutsidwa sizikuphwanya Gawo 7 la pangano. Komabe, anapeza kuti woweruza mlanduyo analakwitsa kunena kuti zigamulo zotsutsidwazo sizimalepheretsa odwala kukhala ndi moyo ndi chitetezo. Makamaka, adapeza kukana ufulu wokhala ndi moyo kotero kuti zigamulo zotsutsidwa zimafuna kuti odwala omwe ali ndi chiopsezo cha moyo adikire mopitirira muyezo wokhazikitsidwa ndi mankhwala, popanda mwayi wopita ku chisamaliro chapadera. Anagwiritsanso ntchito mfundo yofananayo pakupeza kukana ufulu wa chitetezo chaumwini.

Komabe, m’kupita kwa nthaŵi ananena kuti kulandidwa kumeneku kunali koyenera malinga ndi mfundo zazikulu za chilungamo. Makamaka, iwo ankakhulupirira kuti zomwe zatsutsidwazo sizinali zopondereza, zazikulu, kapena zosagwirizana:

  • Zosakhazikika: kuponderezedwa kwa kufunikira kwa gulu lochepa la asing’anga mwa kuletsa inshuwaransi yachinsinsi kumalumikizidwa bwino ndi kukonza dongosolo la anthu.
  • Osati kukokomeza: Makonzedwe otsutsidwawo ndi ofunikira kuti pakhale njira yolipiridwa ndi boma yomwe imapereka chithandizo chamankhwala chofunikira m’malo mongofuna kulipira, ndipo sichiletsa khalidwe lililonse losagwirizana ndi cholingacho.
  • Zosayenderana: Kuopsa kwa kukhudzidwa kwa magawo omwe akutsutsidwa pazokonda za Gawo 7 “sikusagwirizana kwathunthu ndi cholinga cha muyeso,” ndipo adawunikidwa moyenerera (osati mochulukira).[14]

Chief Justice Bowman ndi Justice Harris adazindikira kuti zigamulo zotsutsidwa zikukhudza ufulu wotsutsana mu Gawo 7 pakati pa odwala omwe ali ndi njira zosiyanasiyana zachuma. Koma iwo adati ngati zigamulo zomwe akutsutsidwazo zithetsedwa, iwo omwe sangakwanitse kupeza njira ina yachinsinsi akukumana ndi zotsatirapo zoipa zopanga dongosolo lachinsinsi logwirizana ndi luso la kulipira.

Woweruza Fenlon, pazifukwa zomwezo, adanenanso kuti apilo iyenera kuthetsedwa. Mosiyana ndi anthu ambiri, ndinapeza kuti zigamulo zotsutsidwazo zimalanda odwala ena ufulu wawo wokhala ndi moyo ndi chitetezo m’njira yosagwirizana ndi mfundo zazikulu zachilungamo. Komabe, ndidapeza kuti kuphwanya koteroko kunali koyenera malinga ndi Gawo 1 la chikalatacho panganopambuyo pofunsira Mitengo mayeso:[15]

  1. Lamulo liyenera kutsata cholinga chofunikira kwambiri kuti chitsimikizire kuchepetsedwa kwa ufulu wa charter;
  2. Lamulo liyenera kukhala logwirizana ndi cholinga;
  3. Lamulo lisawononge ufulu kuposa momwe liyenera kukwaniritsa cholingacho; Ndipo the
  4. Lamuloli lisakhale ndi zotsatira zoyipa kwambiri kwa anthu omwe likuwakhudza.

Mafunso awiri oyamba kuchokera Mitengo Mayesowo sanali otsutsana. Poona kuti zigamulo zomwe akutsutsidwazo zinali zofooka pang’ono, Woweruza Fenlon adagwirizana ndi woweruza milandu kuti makhoti akuyenera kulemekeza chisankho chalamulo choletsa kuwonekera kwa chithandizo chamankhwala payekha. Justice Fenlon ananenanso kuti zotsatira zonse za zigamulo zomwe akutsutsidwa sizinali zovuta kwambiri chifukwa cha zotsatira zoipa zowononga zigamulo zomwe zimatsutsidwa ndi kulola chisamaliro chapadera, zomwe “zingapangitse iwo omwe sakanatha kudzipezera okha chithandizo chachinsinsi – omwe ali pachiopsezo kwambiri.” anthu—kudikirira nthawi yotalikirapo kuti alandire chithandizo, ndipo motero avulazidwa – kuposa zomwe tapeza m’dongosolo lino.[16]

Ambiri adagwirizana ndi kusanthula kwa Gawo 1 la Judge Fenlon.

Kuyang’ana m’tsogolo: Njira yatsopano yazaumoyo ku British Columbia

Odandaula / odandaula apempha chilolezo kuti achite apilo ku Khoti Lalikulu la Canada. Ngati chilolezo chochita apilo chiperekedwa, chigamulo cha Khoti Lalikulu ku Canada chingakhale ndi tanthauzo lalikulu pazachipatala cha Canada, chifukwa cha zovuta zamalamulo ndi ndalama.

Mogwirizana ndi makhothi awa, nkhawa zazikulu zachipatala ku Canada zadzetsa mkangano waukulu pakusintha, kuphatikiza gawo lazachipatala ku Canada.[17]

Pa Julayi 11-12, 2022, nduna zazikulu zaku Canada zidakumana kuti akambirane zovuta zomwe zikuyang’anizana ndi kayendetsedwe ka zaumoyo ku Canada, kupempha boma kuti liwonjezere ndalama zothandizira zaumoyo ndi pafupifupi $28 biliyoni pachaka.[18] Komabe, ndalama zothandizira zaumoyo ndi chimodzi mwazinthu zingapo zomwe zimafunikira kuti munthu alembetse ndikusunga ogwira ntchito omwe amafunikira kuti asungire chithandizo chamankhwala. Ponena za kuchepa kwa asing’anga a mabanja, omaliza maphunziro asukulu yachipatala ku Canada ochepa akusankha kuchita zamankhwala abanja ataona zovuta zapadera zomwe zimachitika pamabanja, kuphatikiza mitundu yolipira yosakwanira komanso kusowa kwa chithandizo cha utsogoleri, komanso kufunikira kwakukulu.[19] Kuphatikiza apo, Canada pakadali pano ikulamula kuti pakhale njira yodula, yayitali, komanso yovuta yopereka zilolezo kwa asing’anga ophunzitsidwa ndi mayiko ena, kotero kuti ambiri aiwo akulephera kuchita ku Canada ngakhale atamaliza mayeso onse ofunikira.[20] Zitsanzo izi ndi gawo limodzi chabe lazowongolera zomwe zimathandizira ku zovuta zapano.

Poyankha, pa Seputembara 29, 2022, dipatimenti ya Zaumoyo ku Britain Columbia idalengeza za 70-Point Health Human Resources Strategy kuti athane ndi zovuta zomwe zadziwika mu BC chisamaliro chaumoyo.[21] Njirayi ikuphatikiza, Mwa zina, kuwonjezera mipando 128 ya maphunziro apamwamba ndi omaliza maphunziro ku sukulu ya zachipatala ya University of British Columbia, akugwira ntchito ndi yunivesite ya Simon Fraser kuti apange sukulu yachiwiri ya zachipatala m’chigawochi, ndikuwongolera ndondomeko yovomerezeka ya ogwira ntchito zachipatala akunja. Ponena za kukulitsa mwayi wopeza chithandizo, ndondomekoyi imaperekanso kuwonjezereka kwa machitidwe kwa azachipatala, ogwira ntchito zachipatala ndi oyankha oyambirira, komanso kuwonjezereka kwa chisamaliro chokhazikika komanso chopezekapo komanso ntchito za telehealth.

Monga gawo lokhazikitsa Human Resources Health Strategy, pa Okutobala 31, 2022, Province of British Columbia, Physicians of British Columbia, and Family Physicians of British Columbia adalengeza njira yatsopano yolipirira yomwe ipezeka kwa madotolo ogwira ntchito zonse ku Britain. . Columbia pa February 1, 2023. Chifukwa chimodzi cha kuchepa kwa madokotala a mabanja ku British Columbia n’chakuti madokotala a mabanja m’chigawochi salipira anthu amene amasankha kuchita ukatswiri m’zipatala, ndiponso amene amasamalira mabanja m’zigawo zina. Pansi pa chitsanzo chamakono cha malipiro a ntchito, pafupifupi, madokotala a mabanja a BC amalipidwa $ 31 paulendo wa wodwala kwa odwala 50 oyambirira patsiku, zomwe zimayimira ulendo wa mphindi 15 ndikupatula malipiro a ntchito zina zambiri zomwe dokotala amachita panthawiyi. .kucheza.[22] Mosiyana ndi zimenezi, njira yatsopano yolipira imaganizira zinthu monga nthawi yomwe dokotala amathera ndi wodwalayo, zovuta za mavuto omwe wodwalayo akukumana nawo, komanso ndalama zoyendetsera ntchito zomwe panopa zimaperekedwa mwachindunji ndi madokotala a mabanja.[23] Chifukwa chake, njira yatsopano yolipirira iyi imaphatikiza zinthu zabwino zamitundu ingapo yolipira kuti apereke chindapusa champikisano kwa asing’anga am’banja omwe amagwira ntchito zonse m’chigawochi, ndi cholinga chokulitsa ndi kukonza mwayi wopeza chithandizo chamankhwala ku British Columbia.[24]

Tidzayang’anitsitsa zomwe zikuchitika pamene zikuwonekera.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *